Congenital disorder of glycosylation (CDG) type Ie. A new patient
ABSTRACT CDG Ie is caused by a deficiency of dolichol-phosphate-mannose synthase 1 (DPM1), an enzyme involved in N-glycan assembly in the endoplasmic reticulum. Three proteins are known to be part of the synthase complex: DPM 1, DPM2 and DPM3. Only mutations in DPM1, the catalytic subunit, have been described in three families. One was homozygous for the c274C>G (R92G) mutation in DPM1 and two others were compound heterozygous for R92G and a c628delC deletion or a c331-343del13, respectively. Clinical features were a severe infantile encephalopathy, early intractable seizures, acquired microcephaly, and some dysmorphic features. We report a patient with milder symptoms: microcephaly, dysmorphic features, developmental delay, optic atrophy, and cerebellar dysfunction without cerebellar atrophy. The patient is homozygous for a new mutation in exon 9 of the DPM1 gene (c742T>C (S248P)). Our findings extend the spectrum of CDG Ie.
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ABSTRACT: Polyisoprenoid alcohols are membrane lipids that are present in every cell, conserved from archaea to higher eukaryotes. The most common form, alpha-saturated polyprenol or dolichol is present in all tissues and most organelle membranes of eukaryotic cells. Dolichol has a well defined role as a lipid carrier for the glycan precursor in the early stages of N-linked protein glycosylation, which is assembled in the endoplasmic reticulum of all eukaryotic cells. Other glycosylation processes including C- and O-mannosylation, GPI-anchor biosynthesis and O-glucosylation also depend on dolichol biosynthesis via the availability of dolichol-P-mannose and dolichol-P-glucose in the ER. The ubiquity of dolichol in cellular compartments that are not involved in glycosylation raises the possibility of additional functions independent of these protein post-translational modifications. The molecular basis of several steps involved in the synthesis and the recycling of dolichol and its derivatives is still unknown, which hampers further research into this direction. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on structural and functional aspects of dolichol metabolites. We will describe the metabolic disorders with a defect in known steps of dolichol biosynthesis and recycling in human and discuss their pathogenic mechanisms. Exploration of the developmental, cellular and biochemical defects associated with these disorders will provide a better understanding of the functions of this lipid class in human.Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease 03/2011; 34(4):859-67. DOI:10.1007/s10545-011-9301-0 · 4.14 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Glycosylation is an essential process by which sugars are attached to proteins and lipids. Complete lack of glycosylation is not compatible with life. Because of the widespread function of glycosylation, inherited disorders of glycosylation are multisystemic. Since the identification of the first defect on N-linked glycosylation in the 1980s, there are over 40 different congenital protein hypoglycosylation diseases. This review will include defects of N-linked glycosylation, O-linked glycosylation and disorders of combined N- and O-linked glycosylation.The Application of Clinical Genetics 07/2012; 5:43-54. DOI:10.2147/TACG.S18673
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ABSTRACT: Defects in the biosynthesis of the oligosaccharide precursor for N-glycosylation lead to decreased occupancy of glycosylation sites and thereby to diseases known as congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG). In the last 20 years, approximately 1,000 CDG patients have been identified presenting with multiple organ dysfunctions. This review sets the state of the art by listing all mutations identified in the 15 genes (PMM2, MPI, DPAGT1, ALG1, ALG2, ALG3, ALG9, ALG12, ALG6, ALG8, DOLK, DPM1, DPM3, MPDU1, and RFT1) that yield a deficiency of dolichol-linked oligosaccharide biosynthesis. The present analysis shows that most mutations lead to substitutions of strongly conserved amino acid residues across eukaryotes. Furthermore, the comparison between the different forms of CDG affecting dolichol-linked oligosaccharide biosynthesis shows that the severity of the disease does not relate to the position of the mutated gene along this biosynthetic pathway.Human Mutation 12/2009; 30(12):1628-41. DOI:10.1002/humu.21126 · 5.05 Impact Factor