Article

The endocytic receptor megalin binds the iron transporting neutrophil-gelatinase-associated lipocalin with high affinity and mediates its cellular uptake.

Institute of Medical Biochemistry, University of Aarhus, Denmark.
FEBS Letters (Impact Factor: 3.34). 02/2005; 579(3):773-7. DOI: 10.1016/j.febslet.2004.12.031
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Neutrophil-gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is a prominent protein of specific granules of human neutrophils also synthesized by epithelial cells during inflammation. NGAL binds bacterial siderophores preventing bacteria from retrieving iron from this source. Also, NGAL may be important in delivering iron to cells during formation of the tubular epithelial cells of the primordial kidney. No cellular receptor for NGAL has been described. We show here that megalin, a member of the low-density lipoprotein receptor family expressed in polarized epithelia, binds NGAL with high affinity, as shown by surface plasmon resonance analysis. Furthermore, a rat yolk sac cell line known to express high levels of megalin, endocytosed NGAL by a mechanism completely blocked by an antibody against megalin.

1 Follower
 · 
126 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Depression is more common in patients with cardiovascular disease than in the general population. Conversely, depression is a risk factor for developing cardiovascular disease. Comorbidity of these two pathologies worsens prognosis. Several mechanisms have been indicated in the link between cardiovascular disease and depression, including inflammation. Systemic inflammation can have long-lasting effects on the central nervous system, which could be associated with depression. NGAL is an inflammatory marker and elevated plasma levels are associated with both cardiovascular disease and depression. While patients with depression show elevated NGAL levels, in patients with comorbid heart failure, NGAL levels are significantly higher and associated with depression scores. Systemic inflammation evokes NGAL expression in the brain. This is considered a proinflammatory effect as it is involved in microglia activation and reactive astrocytosis. Animal studies support a direct link between NGAL and depression/anxiety associated behavior. In this review we focus on the role of NGAL in linking depression and cardiovascular disease.
    Brain Behavior and Immunity 01/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.bbi.2014.12.026 · 6.13 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background The role of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) as a diagnostic marker for acute kidney injury (AKI) in sepsis is still debated. We hypothesized that in sepsis, the performance of serum(s) and urinary(u) NGAL can be negatively impacted by severity of illness and inflammation, and that both uNGAL and sNGAL levels can be increased regardless of presence of AKI. Methods One hundred and seven patients with sepsis were included. uNGAL and sNGAL were measured at admission (T0) and 4 hours (T4) and 24 hours later (T24). Transient and intrinsic AKI were respectively defined as AKI according to RIFLE during the first 72 hours that did or did not recover to “no AKI” in the following 72 hours. Patients were classified according to tertiles of CRP and APACHE II score increase. The relationship between sNGAL and uNGAL was assessed by linear regression. Results Fifty-seven patients developed transient and 22 intrinsic AKI. Prevalence of transient and intrinsic AKI were higher in patients with versus without septic shock (OR (95% CI):3.3(1.4-8.2)). uNGAL was associated with sNGAL, and this with parallel slopes but different intercepts for AKI (Y = 0.87*X + 314.3,R2 = 0.31) and no AKI (Y = 0.87*X + 20.1,R2 = 0.38). At T4, median uNGAL and sNGAL levels were higher in septic patients with versus without shock but this is independent of AKI ((545 ng/mL vs 196 ng/ml for uNGAL and 474 ng/ml vs 287 ng/ml for sNGAL (both P = 0.003)). Both uNGAL and sNGAL levels increased with tertiles of CRP and APACHE II score increase. Conclusions Serum and uNGAL levels are influenced by severity of illness and inflammation, and this was found to be independent of the presence of AKI. There is a strong correlation between sNGAL and uNGAL levels in patients with sepsis, indicating that increased levels of uNGAL can also be due to overspill from the systemic circulation, blurring the discriminative value of NGAL as a biomarker for AKI in patients with sepsis.
    BMC Nephrology 02/2015; 16(1). DOI:10.1186/s12882-015-0003-y · 1.52 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Acute kidney injury (AKI) has diverse causes and is associated with increased mortality and morbidity. In less developed countries (LDC), nephrotoxic AKI (ToxAKI) is common and mainly due to deliberate ingestion of nephrotoxic pesticides, toxic plants or to snake envenomation. ToxAKI shares some pathophysiological pathways with the much more intensively studied ischemic AKI, but in contrast to ischemic AKI, most victims are young, previously healthy adults. Diagnosis of AKI is currently based on a rise in serum creatinine, however this may delay diagnosis because of the kinetics of creatinine. Baseline creatinine values are also rarely available in LDC. Novel renal injury biomarkers offer a way forward because they usually increase more rapidly in AKI and are normally regarded as absent or very low in concentration, thereby reducing the need for a baseline estimate. This should increase sensitivity and speed of diagnosis. Specificity should also be increased for urine biomarkers since many originate from the renal tubular epithelium. Earlier diagnosis of ToxAKI should allow earlier initiation of appropriate therapy. However, translation of novel biomarkers of ToxAKI into clinical practice requires better understanding of non-renal factors in poisoning that alter biomarkers and the influence of dose of nephrotoxin on biomarker performance. Further issues are establishing LDC population-based normal ranges and assessing sampling and analytical parameters for low resource settings. The potential role of renal biomarkers in exploring ToxAKI aetiologies for chronic kidney disease of unknown origin (CKDu) is a high research priority in LDC. Therefore, developing more sensitive biomarkers for early diagnosis of nephrotoxicity is a critical step to making progress against AKI and CKDu in the developing world.
    British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 02/2015; DOI:10.1111/bcp.12601 · 3.69 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
80 Downloads
Available from
Jun 3, 2014