Indole-3-carbinol (I3C), present in cruciferous vegetables, and its major in vivo product 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM), have been reported to suppress cancer development. However, the responsible molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-activated gene-1 (NAG-1) is a TGF-beta superfamily gene associated with pro-apoptotic and anti-tumorigenic activities. The present study was performed to investigate whether I3C and DIM influence NAG-1 expression and to provide the potential molecular mechanism of their effects on anti-tumorigenesis. The I3C repressed cell proliferation and induced NAG-1 expression in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, DIM increased the expression of NAG-1 as well as activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3), and the induction of ATF3 was earlier than that of NAG-1. The DIM treatment increased luciferase activity of NAG-1 in HCT-116 cells transfected with NAG-1 promoter construct. The results suggest that I3C represses cell proliferation through up-regulation of NAG-1 and that ATF3 may play a pivotal role in DIM-induced NAG-1 expression in human colorectal cancer cells. Furthermore, the mixture of I3C with resveratrol enhances NAG-1 expression, suggesting the synergistic effect of these two unrelated compounds on NAG-1 expression.
"It is a distinct member of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily, which is important for the prevention of inflammation and/or carcinogenesis (Baek and Eling, 2006). GDF15 expression was found to be upregulated by Res, similar to NSAIDs (Lee et al., 2005). As the relationship between COX2 and GDF15 seems to be inverse (Iguchi et al., 2009), Res and NSAIDs may block the expression of COX2 and stimulate the expression of GDF15 to exert their chemotherapeutic and anticancer effects. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Resveratrol and celecoxib were used as chemopreventive agents in animal models of carcinogenesis, and exert antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects on cancer cells. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether combining resveratrol with celecoxib may exert more potent anticarcinogenic effects than the single agents. Mammary carcinogenesis was initiated in 70 female Sprague-Dawley rats with N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (NMU). The chemoprevention with resveratrol, celecoxib, and their combination started 2 weeks before the first carcinogen dose and lasted until the end of the experiment. Tumor incidence and frequency, latency period, tumor volume, the expression of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) and growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15), and also the formation of reactive oxygen species were analyzed using different methods. In addition, the levels of resveratrol and its metabolites in blood and selected tumor tissues were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Finally, the anticancer effects of the reagents were studied in the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7. Celecoxib as a single agent significantly decreased tumor frequency, prolonged tumor latency, and decreased the total number of malignant tumors compared with the NMU conditions. Tumor volume was nonsignificantly reduced (0.68±0.25 vs. 0.93±0.28 cm). Importantly, the addition of resveratrol to celecoxib reduced tumor volume by 60% compared with celecoxib alone (from 0.68±0.25 to 0.27±0.07 cm, P<0.05). Furthermore, the combination of resveratrol and celecoxib reduced tumor frequency by 29% compared with celecoxib alone (P=0.53). Tumor latency was not influenced by this combination compared with celecoxib alone (126.56±3.45 vs. 120.71±4.08 days). In addition, COX2 mRNA and immunoreactive protein stained on tumor sections were reduced and GDF15 protein increased significantly by the combination studied compared with the NMU conditions. In agreement with these data, a significant reduction in reactive oxygen species in blood lymphocytes of the combination was detected, which may have contributed toward the cancer-preventive effects of this application. This study showed that in NMU-induced mammary cancer in rats, the combination of resveratrol and celecoxib led to a significant reduction in all tumor parameters. In addition, in terms of tumor volume, the combination was more efficient than celecoxib as a single agent.
European journal of cancer prevention: the official journal of the European Cancer Prevention Organisation (ECP) 11/2014; 23(6):506-513. DOI:10.1097/CEJ.0000000000000083 · 3.03 Impact Factor
"ATF-3 is also activated by serum stimulation downstream of c-Myc  and is frequently overexpressed in various tumors including those of the prostate , breast , and Hodgkin's lymphomas . Previous studies reported that ATF-3 was induced by treating cells with antitumorigenic compounds [14–18] and a phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitor . On the other hand, ATF-3 is rapidly induced in cells treated with growth stimulators such as serum and growth factors . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Activating transcription factor-(ATF-) 3, a stress-inducible transcription factor, is rapidly upregulated under various stress conditions and plays an important role in inducing cancer cell apoptosis. NBM-TP-007-GS-002 (GS-002) is a Taiwanese propolin G (PPG) derivative. In this study, we examined the antitumor effects of GS-002 in human hepatoma Hep3B and HepG2 cells in vitro. First, we found that GS-002 significantly inhibited cell proliferation and induced cell apoptosis in dose-dependent manners. Several main apoptotic indicators were found in GS-002-treated cells, such as the cleaved forms of caspase-3, caspase-9, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). GS-002 also induced endoplasmic reticular (ER) stress as evidenced by increases in ER stress-responsive proteins including glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), growth arrest- and DNA damage-inducible gene 153 (GADD153), phosphorylated eukaryotic initiation factor 2 α (eIF2 α ), phosphorylated protein endoplasmic-reticular-resident kinase (PERK), and ATF-3. The induction of ATF-3 expression was mediated by mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways in GS-002-treated cells. Furthermore, we found that GS-002 induced more cell apoptosis in ATF-3-overexpressing cells. These results suggest that the induction of apoptosis by the propolis derivative, GS-002, is partially mediated through ER stress and ATF-3-dependent pathways, and GS-002 has the potential for development as an antitumor drug.
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 10/2013; 2013(6):658370. DOI:10.1155/2013/658370 · 1.88 Impact Factor
"There are many contradictory results with regard to the role of GDF15 in cancer cells . The majority of these studies have suggested that GDF15 is a proapoptotic molecule promoting tumor cell apoptosis 
, while other studies suggest that GDF15 may facilitate tumor progression 
. In cardiovascular disease, much evidence demonstrates that GDF15 is a protective cytokine against multiple stimuli via many signaling pathways including PI3K/Akt, ERK1/2, and SMAD2/3 . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15), a direct target gene of p53, is a multifunctional member of the TGF-β/BMP superfamily. GDF15 can be induced and is implicated as a key secretory cytokine in response to multiple cellular stimuli. Accumulating evidence indicates that GDF15 is associated with the development and prognosis of diabetes mellitus, while whether GDF15 can be induced by high glucose is unknown. In the present study, we revealed that high glucose could induce GDF15 expression and secretion in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells in a ROS- and p53-dependent manner. Inhibition of high glucose-induced GDF15 expression by siRNA demonstrated that adaptively induced GDF15 played a protective role against high glucose-induced human umbilical vein endothelial cell apoptosis via maintaining the active state of PI3K/Akt/eNOS pathway and attenuating NF-κB/JNK pathway activation. The protective effects of GDF15 were probably achieved by inhibiting ROS overproduction in high glucose-treated human umbilical vein endothelial cells in a negative feedback manner. Our results suggest that high glucose can promote GDF15 expression and secretion in human umbilical vein endothelial cells, which in turn attenuates high glucose-induced endothelial cell apoptosis.
PLoS ONE 06/2013; 8(6):e65549. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0065549 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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