Indole-3-carbinol and 3,3 '-diindolylmethane induce expression of NAG-1 in a p53-independent manner
ABSTRACT Indole-3-carbinol (I3C), present in cruciferous vegetables, and its major in vivo product 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM), have been reported to suppress cancer development. However, the responsible molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-activated gene-1 (NAG-1) is a TGF-beta superfamily gene associated with pro-apoptotic and anti-tumorigenic activities. The present study was performed to investigate whether I3C and DIM influence NAG-1 expression and to provide the potential molecular mechanism of their effects on anti-tumorigenesis. The I3C repressed cell proliferation and induced NAG-1 expression in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, DIM increased the expression of NAG-1 as well as activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3), and the induction of ATF3 was earlier than that of NAG-1. The DIM treatment increased luciferase activity of NAG-1 in HCT-116 cells transfected with NAG-1 promoter construct. The results suggest that I3C represses cell proliferation through up-regulation of NAG-1 and that ATF3 may play a pivotal role in DIM-induced NAG-1 expression in human colorectal cancer cells. Furthermore, the mixture of I3C with resveratrol enhances NAG-1 expression, suggesting the synergistic effect of these two unrelated compounds on NAG-1 expression.
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ABSTRACT: Resveratrol and celecoxib were used as chemopreventive agents in animal models of carcinogenesis, and exert antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects on cancer cells. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether combining resveratrol with celecoxib may exert more potent anticarcinogenic effects than the single agents. Mammary carcinogenesis was initiated in 70 female Sprague-Dawley rats with N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (NMU). The chemoprevention with resveratrol, celecoxib, and their combination started 2 weeks before the first carcinogen dose and lasted until the end of the experiment. Tumor incidence and frequency, latency period, tumor volume, the expression of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) and growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15), and also the formation of reactive oxygen species were analyzed using different methods. In addition, the levels of resveratrol and its metabolites in blood and selected tumor tissues were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Finally, the anticancer effects of the reagents were studied in the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7. Celecoxib as a single agent significantly decreased tumor frequency, prolonged tumor latency, and decreased the total number of malignant tumors compared with the NMU conditions. Tumor volume was nonsignificantly reduced (0.68±0.25 vs. 0.93±0.28 cm). Importantly, the addition of resveratrol to celecoxib reduced tumor volume by 60% compared with celecoxib alone (from 0.68±0.25 to 0.27±0.07 cm, P<0.05). Furthermore, the combination of resveratrol and celecoxib reduced tumor frequency by 29% compared with celecoxib alone (P=0.53). Tumor latency was not influenced by this combination compared with celecoxib alone (126.56±3.45 vs. 120.71±4.08 days). In addition, COX2 mRNA and immunoreactive protein stained on tumor sections were reduced and GDF15 protein increased significantly by the combination studied compared with the NMU conditions. In agreement with these data, a significant reduction in reactive oxygen species in blood lymphocytes of the combination was detected, which may have contributed toward the cancer-preventive effects of this application. This study showed that in NMU-induced mammary cancer in rats, the combination of resveratrol and celecoxib led to a significant reduction in all tumor parameters. In addition, in terms of tumor volume, the combination was more efficient than celecoxib as a single agent.European journal of cancer prevention: the official journal of the European Cancer Prevention Organisation (ECP) 11/2014; 23(6):506-513. DOI:10.1097/CEJ.0000000000000083 · 2.76 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Tolfenamic acid (TA) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug associated with anti-tumorigenic and pro-apoptotic properties in animal and in vitro models of cancer. However, the underlying cellular mechanisms by which TA exerts its effects are only partially understood. Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) is a member of the ATF/CREB subfamily of the basic region-leucine zipper family and has been known as a tumor suppressor in human colorectal cancer cells. The present study was performed to observe whether ATF3 mediates TA-induced apoptosis and to elucidate the molecular mechanism of ATF3 transcription induced by TA. TA treatment and ectopic expression of ATF3 increased apoptosis, whereas knockdown of ATF3 resulted in significant repression of TA-activated apoptosis. The TA treatment also induced ATF3 promoter activity. Internal deletion and point mutation of the predicted ATF/C/EBP binding site in ATF3 promoter abolished luciferase activation by TA. Overexpression of ATF2 resulted in significant increase in ATF3 promoter activity, and electrophoretic mobility shift assay identified this region as a core sequence to which ATF2 binds. TA treatment resulted in an increase in ATF2 phosphorylation, which was followed by a subsequent increase in ATF3 transcription. Knock down of ATF2 abolished TA-induced ATF3 expression. We further provide evidence that TA leads to increases in phospho-p38 MAPK, JNK and ERK levels. Inhibition of these pathways using selective inhibitors and dominant negative constructs ameliorated TA-induced ATF3 expression and promoter activities. The current study shows that TA stimulates ATF3 expression and subsequently induces apoptosis. These pathways are mediated through phosphorylation of ATF2, which is mediated by p38 MAPK-, JNK- and ERK-dependent pathways.Oncogene 09/2010; 29(37):5182-92. DOI:10.1038/onc.2010.251 · 8.56 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) plays a central role in cell differentiation, metabolism and tumorigenesis. We have investigated the therapeutic properties of 5-[[6-[(2-fluorophenyl)-methoxy]-2-napthalenyl]-methyl]-2,4-thiazolidinedione (MCC-555) a PPARgamma agonist in human colorectal cancer cells. To elucidate the molecular mechanism(s), by which MCC-555 exerts its effects on the human colorectal cancer cells, we have analyzed the expression of two pro-apoptotic proteins, Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-activated gene-1 (NAG-1). MCC-555-induced expression of the transcription factor, KLF-4 was blocked by a PPARgamma specific antagonist GW9662 in PPARgamma-dependent manner in HCT-116 cells. We further identified a new KLF4 target gene NAG-1, which shows a pro-apoptotic activity. We confirmed that PPARgamma agonists-induced NAG-1 expression was abolished using KLF4 siRNA in HCT-116 cells. Subsequently, KLF4 expression enhances the NAG-1 promoter activity in HCT-116 cells, and functional KLF4 binding sites in the NAG-1 promoter were also identified. MCC-555, a PPARgamma agonist induced the expression of Klf4 mRNA and protein in murine intestinal tumors from MCC-555-treated mice, as assessed by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. This study shows that PPARgamma agonists up-regulate KLF4 expression in receptor-dependent manner, and KLF4 was identified as a novel transcription factor that controls NAG-1 promoter activity in human and mouse colorectal cancers.European journal of pharmacology 04/2010; 637(1-3):30-7. DOI:10.1016/j.ejphar.2010.03.055 · 2.68 Impact Factor