Indole-3-carbinol and 3,3'-diindolylmethane induce expression of NAG-1 in a p53-independent manner.
ABSTRACT Indole-3-carbinol (I3C), present in cruciferous vegetables, and its major in vivo product 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM), have been reported to suppress cancer development. However, the responsible molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-activated gene-1 (NAG-1) is a TGF-beta superfamily gene associated with pro-apoptotic and anti-tumorigenic activities. The present study was performed to investigate whether I3C and DIM influence NAG-1 expression and to provide the potential molecular mechanism of their effects on anti-tumorigenesis. The I3C repressed cell proliferation and induced NAG-1 expression in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, DIM increased the expression of NAG-1 as well as activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3), and the induction of ATF3 was earlier than that of NAG-1. The DIM treatment increased luciferase activity of NAG-1 in HCT-116 cells transfected with NAG-1 promoter construct. The results suggest that I3C represses cell proliferation through up-regulation of NAG-1 and that ATF3 may play a pivotal role in DIM-induced NAG-1 expression in human colorectal cancer cells. Furthermore, the mixture of I3C with resveratrol enhances NAG-1 expression, suggesting the synergistic effect of these two unrelated compounds on NAG-1 expression.
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ABSTRACT: Background Ginger leaf (GL) has long been used as a vegetable, tea and herbal medicine. However, its pharmacological properties are still poorly understood. Thus, we performed in vitro studies to evaluate anti-cancer properties of ginger leaf and then elucidate the potential mechanisms involved. Methods Cell viability was measured by MTT assay. ATF3 expression level was evaluated by Western blot or RT-PCR and ATF3 transcriptional activity was determined using a dual-luciferase assay kit after the transfection of ATF3 promoter constructs. In addition, ATF3-dependent apoptosis was evaluated by Western blot after ATF3 knockdown using ATF3 siRNA. Results Exposure of GL to human colorectal cancer cells (HCT116, SW480 and LoVo cells) reduced the cell viability and induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, GL reduced cell viability in MCF-7, MDA-MB-231 and HepG-2 cells. ATF3 knockdown attenuated GL-mediated apoptosis. GL increased activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) expressions in both protein and mRNA level and activated ATF3 promoter activity, indicating transcriptional activation of ATF3 gene by GL. In addition, our data showed that GL-responsible sites might be between -318 and -85 region of the ATF3 promoter. We also observed that ERK1/2 inhibition by PD98059 attenuated GL-mediated ATF3 expression but not p38 inhibition by SB203580, indicating ERK1/2 pathway implicated in GL-induced ATF3 activation. Conclusions These findings suggest that the reduction of cell viability and apoptosis by GL may be a result of ATF3 promoter activation and subsequent increase of ATF3 expression through ERK1/2 activation in human colorectal cancer cells.BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 10/2014; 14:200. · 1.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We investigated the anti-proliferative activity of sulforaphane and expression changes of NAG-1 and p21 genes in response to sulforaphane treatment in human colorectal HCT116 cells. The results showed that sulforaphane decreased cell viabilities in a dose-dependent manner and induced expression of NAG-1 and p21 proteins in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. In addition, we found that NAG-1 expression by sulforaphane was not dependent on the presence of p53, whereas p21 expression was dependent on p53 presence. The results indicated that up-regulation of NAG-1 was not related with the activity of a dietary histone deacetylase inhibitor of sulforaphane. ATF3 induction was detected from 2 hr after sulforaphane treatment, indicating that ATF3 could be a transcription factor to up-regulate NAG-1 expression. The results of this study may help to increase our understanding of the molecular mechanism of anti-cancer activity mediated by sulforaphane in human colorectal cancer cells.Journal of Life Science. 03/2012; 22(3).
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ABSTRACT: Cruciferous vegetables including diindolylmethane (DIM) have been shown to have anticancer activity. Especially, DIM-pPhBr and DIM-pPhF used in this study was reported to have more effective and less toxic effects than DIM. However, there is no report presenting their anti-tumorigenic activity in oral cancer. In the present study, we examined the effects of DIM-pPhBr and DIM-pPhF on the cell proliferation and apoptosis in KB human oral cancer cells. DIM-pPhBr and DIM-pPhF decreased cell proliferation and induced apoptosis evidenced by western blot analysis, DAPI staining and sub- population. This provides the first evidence that DIM-pPhBr and DIM-pPhF originating from Cruciferous vegetables induce apoptotic cell death in human oral cancer cells to inhibit cancer cell proliferation.Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety. 01/2011; 26(4).