Indole-3-carbinol and 3,3'-diindolylmethane induce expression of NAG-1 in a p53-independent manner.
ABSTRACT Indole-3-carbinol (I3C), present in cruciferous vegetables, and its major in vivo product 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM), have been reported to suppress cancer development. However, the responsible molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-activated gene-1 (NAG-1) is a TGF-beta superfamily gene associated with pro-apoptotic and anti-tumorigenic activities. The present study was performed to investigate whether I3C and DIM influence NAG-1 expression and to provide the potential molecular mechanism of their effects on anti-tumorigenesis. The I3C repressed cell proliferation and induced NAG-1 expression in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, DIM increased the expression of NAG-1 as well as activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3), and the induction of ATF3 was earlier than that of NAG-1. The DIM treatment increased luciferase activity of NAG-1 in HCT-116 cells transfected with NAG-1 promoter construct. The results suggest that I3C represses cell proliferation through up-regulation of NAG-1 and that ATF3 may play a pivotal role in DIM-induced NAG-1 expression in human colorectal cancer cells. Furthermore, the mixture of I3C with resveratrol enhances NAG-1 expression, suggesting the synergistic effect of these two unrelated compounds on NAG-1 expression.
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ABSTRACT: Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers in men and is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the USA. Many anti-tumor agents against prostate cancer cells have been developed, but their unacceptable systemic toxicity to normal tissues frequently limits their usage in clinics. Several previous studies have demonstrated that tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) can induce cell death in a variety of transformed cells including prostate cancer cells, but not normal cells. Indole-3-carbinol (I3C), a phytochemical that is produced in fruits and vegetables, may play an important role in the prevention of many types of cancer, including hormone-related ones such as breast and prostate cancer. In this study, we examined the potential sensitizing effects of I3C on TRAIL-mediated apoptosis in a prostate cancer cell line, LNCaP. When LNCaP cells were incubated with I3C (either 30 or 90 microM) for 24 h and then treated with TRAIL (100 ng/ml), enhanced TRAIL-mediated apoptosis was observed. The enhanced apoptosis measured by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase and caspase 3 cleavage. We also observed that loss of cell viability after treatment with I3C/TRAIL is greater compared with I3C and TRAIL alone. To determine the molecular mechanisms involved in the enhanced apoptosis, we examined the expression of two TRAIL death receptors (DR4 and DR5) and two TRAIL decoy receptors (DcR1 and DcR2). We found that treatment with I3C induced DR4 and DR5 expression at both transcriptional and translational levels. These findings suggest that I3C may be an effective sensitizer of TRAIL treatment against TRAIL-resistant prostate cancer cell lines such as LNCaP.FEBS Letters 07/2003; 544(1-3):246-51. · 3.58 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of Indole-3-carbinol (I3C), a naturally occurring component of cruciferous vegetables, on cell proliferation of a colon cancer cell line. METHODS: Cell proliferation was measured using three different methods; 3H-thymidine incorporation, cell count and colourimetric assay. RESULTS: Each method of measurement revealed that I3C significantly reduced cell proliferation at concentrations of > 0.1 mM. CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrates for the first time the capacity of indole-3-carbinol to inhibit cell proliferation of a colon cancer cell line.Colorectal Disease 05/2002; 4(3):205-207. · 2.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We have investigated whether NAG-1 is induced in oral cavity cancer cells by various NSAIDs and if apoptosis induced by NSAIDs can be linked directly with the induction of NAG-1. NAG-1 expression was increased by diclofenac, aceclofenac, indomethacin, ibuprofen, and sulindac sulfide, in the order of NAG-1 induction, but not by acetaminophen, piroxicam or NS-398. Diclofenac was the most effective NAG-1 inducer. Incubation with diclofenac inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis. The expression of NAG-1 was observed in advance of the induction of apoptosis. Conditioned medium from NAG-1-overexpressing Drosophila cells inhibited SCC 1483 cells proliferation and induced apoptosis. In summary, some NSAIDs induce NAG-1 expression in oral cavity cancer cells and the induced NAG-1 protein appears to mediate apoptosis. Therefore, NSAIDs may be considered as a possible chemopreventive agent against oral cavity cancer.Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 01/2005; 325(4):1298-303. · 2.41 Impact Factor