The synthesis, structure and ethene polymerisation catalysis of mono(salicylaldiminato) titanium and zirconium complexes.

Wolfson Materials and Catalysis Centre, School of Chemical Sciences and Pharmacy, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK NR4 7TJ.
Dalton Transactions (Impact Factor: 4.1). 03/2005; DOI: 10.1039/b414229b
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The silyl ethers 3-But-2-(OSiMe3)C6H3CH=NR (2a-e) have been prepared by deprotonation of the known iminophenols (1a-e) and treatment with SiClMe3 (a, R = C6H5; b, R = 2,6-Pri2C6H3; c, R = 2,4,6-Me3C6H2; d, R = 2-C6H5C6H4; e, R = C6F5). 2a-c react with TiCl4 in hydrocarbon solvents to give the binuclear complexes [Ti{3-But-2-(O)C6H3CH=N(R)}Cl(mu-Cl3)TiCl3] (3a-c). The pentafluorophenyl species 2e reacts with TiCl4 to give the known complex Ti{3-But-2-(O)C6H3CH=N(R)}2Cl2. The mononuclear five-coordinate complex, Ti{3-But-2-(O)C6H3CH=N(2,4,6-Me3C6H2)}Cl3 (4c), was isolated after repeated recrystallisation of 3c. Performing the dehalosilylation reaction in the presence of tetrahydrofuran yields the octahedral, mononuclear complexes Ti{3-But-2-(O)C6H3CH=N(R)}Cl3(THF) (5a-e). The reaction with ZrCl4(THF)2 proceeds similarly to give complexes Zr{3-But-2-(O)C6H3CH=N(R)}Cl3(THF) (6b-e). The crystal structures of 3b, 4c, 5a, 5c, 5e, 6b, 6d, 6e and the salicylaldehyde titanium complex Ti{3-But-2-(O)C6H3CH=O}Cl3(THF) (7) have been determined. Activation of complexes 5a-e and 6b-e with MAO in an ethene saturated toluene solution gives polyethylene with at best high activity depending on the imine substituent.

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    ABSTRACT: Three heteroligated (salicylaldiminato)(β-enaminoketonato)titanium complexes [3-But-2-OC6H3CHN(C6F5)][(p-XC6H4)NC(But)CHC(CF3)O]TiCl2 (3a: X = F, 3b: X = Cl, 3c: X = Br) were synthesized and investigated as the catalysts for ethylene polymerization and ethylene/norbornene copolymerization. In the presence of modified methylaluminoxane as a cocatalyst, these unsymmetric catalysts exhibited high activities toward ethylene polymerization, similar to their parallel parent catalysts. Furthermore, they also displayed favorable ability to efficiently incorporate norbornene into the polymer chains and produce high molecular weight copolymers under the mild conditions, though the copolymerization of ethylene with norbornene leads to relatively lower activities. The sterically open structure of the β-enaminoketonato ligand is responsible for the high norbornene incorporation. The norbornene concentration in the polymerization medium had a profound influence on the molecular weight distribution of the resulting copolymer. When the norbornene concentration in the feed is higher than 0.4 mol/L, the heteroligated catalysts mediated the living copolymerization of ethylene with norbornene to form narrow molecular weight distribution copolymers (Mw/Mn < 1.20), which suggested that chain termination or transfer reaction could be efficiently suppressed via the addition of norbornene into the reaction medium. Polymer yields, catalytic activity, molecular weight, and norbornene incorporation can be controlled within a wide range by the variation of the reaction parameters such as comonomer content in the feed, reaction time, and temperature. ©2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part A: Polym Chem 47: 6072–6082, 2009
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    ABSTRACT: A series of heteroligated (salicylaldiminato)(β-enaminoketonato)titanium complexes of the general formula [3-Bu(t)-2-OC(6)H(3)CH==N(C(6)F(5))][PhN==C(CF(3))CHC(R)O]TiCl(2) (3a: R==Ph, 3b: R==C(6)H(4)Ph(p), 3c: R==C(6)H(4)Ph(o), 3d: R = 1-naphthyl, 3e: R = C(6)H(4)F2(2,6), 3f: R = C(6)H(4)Cl2(2,5), 3g: R==C(6)F4(2,3,5,6)OMe(4)) were synthesized. The structure of complexes 3d, 3f-g were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The X-ray crystallographic analysis indicated these complexes adopted a distorted octahedral geometry around the titanium center. Upon activation with modified methylaluminoxane, complexes 3a-g exhibited moderate to good catalytic activity for norbornene (NB) vinyl addition polymerization, producing moderate molecular weight polynorbornenes under mild conditions. The introduction of electron-withdrawing groups can greatly enhance the catalytic activity. Significantly, the heteroligated titanium complexes displayed greatly improved activity for vinyl addition polymerization of NB compared to homoligated counterparts, which may stem from the suitable combinations of electronic and steric effects.
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    ABSTRACT: We report on the synthesis of mono(aryloxido)titanium(IV) complexes of general formula {Ti[O(o-R)Ar]X3}, with X = OiPr, ArO = 2-tert-butyl-4-methylphenoxy and R = CMe3 (2a), CMe2Ph (2b) and CH2NMe2 (2c). Attempts to reach pure mono(aryloxido) complexes when R = CH2NMe(CH2Ph) (2d) or CH2N(CH2Ph)2 (2e) were unsuccessful. When R = CH2OMe, the analogous mononuclear complex was not obtained, and instead, a dinuclear complex [(2-tert-butyl-4-methyl-6-methoxymethylphenoxy) TiCl(OiPr)(μ2-OiPr)2TiCl(OiPr)2] (3) was formed. Complexes 2b and 3 were characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The former contains a tetrahedrally coordinated TiIV centre, whereas in the latter the aryloxido ligand behaves as a chelating–bridging ligand between the two, chemically very different metal centres that form two face-sharing octahedra. Different synthetic approaches starting from [Ti(OiPr)4] or [TiCl(OiPr)3] were evaluated and are discussed. The hemilabile behaviour of the aryloxido ligand resulting from reversible coordination of its side arm was studied by variable-temperature 1H NMR spectroscopy for 2c (R = CH2NMe2). Complexes 2a–d were contacted with ethylene and AlEt3 as cocatalyst. When activated with AlEt3 (3 equiv.) at 20 bar and 60 °C, complex 2c exhibits interesting activity (2100 g/gTi/h) for the selective dimerization of ethylene to 1-butene (92 % C4=; 99+% C4=1). Noticeable differences in catalyst activity were observed when the R group was modified. (© Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2009)
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