Deteriorative effect of smoking on target lesion revascularization after implantation of coronary stents with diameter of 3.0 mm or less.
ABSTRACT Although smoking cessation is widely encouraged because of the associated risk of cardiovascular events, the impact of smoking on target lesion revascularization (TLR) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is controversial. Therefore, the present study retrospectively investigated the effect of smoking on TLR after plain-old balloon angioplasty (POBA; n=376) and stenting (STENT; n=434) in patients undergoing secondary coronary angiography at a single center.
A smoker was defined as current smoking or quitting within 2 years of the first PCI. In the POBA group, the predictors for TLR, as calculated by multiple logistic regression analysis, were a complex type of lesion (p<0.0001) and the left anterior descending artery (LAD) as affected vessel (p<0.05). In the STENT group, the predictors were the final % diameter of stenosis after stenting, measured by quantitative coronary arteriography (p<0.0005), LAD (p<0.01), and smoking (p=0.049). When the STENT group was divided into 2 groups according to the diameter of the implanted stent, smoking was a predictive factors for TLR in the group that received relatively small stents (diameter < or =3.0 mm) (p<0.02), but not in the group that received larger stents (diameter > or =3.5 mm).
Smoking has a deteriorative effect on TLR after implantation of relatively small coronary stents with a diameter of 3.0 mm or less.
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ABSTRACT: The effect of smoking on prognosis among patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is controversial, and data on the importance of smoking cessation or reductions were lacking. Smoking cessation or reductions could reduce the risk of adverse outcomes in patient after PCI. There were 19 506 consecutive patients who had undergone successful PCI between April 2004 and January 2010 followed. Extensive data, including self-reported smoking habits, were obtained at baseline and during follow-up. Compared with post-PCI quitters and persistent smokers, the nonsmokers and pre-PCI quitters were older and had a higher prevalence of comorbid factors such as hypertension and impaired left ventricle function. The adjusted hazard ratios for mortality were 2.52 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.92-3.30) for nonsmokers, 0.52 (95% CI: 0.32-0.84) for pre-PCI quitters, and 0.11 (95% CI: 0.06-0.22) for post-PCI quitters, compared to persistent smokers. With respect to additional revascularizations, a higher risk was observed among the quitters (1.70 [95% CI: 1.40-2.08] for pre-PCI quitters and 1.59 [95% CI: 1.36-1.85] for post-PCI quitters) as well as the nonsmokers (1.40 [95% CI: 1.20-1.64]). Among persistent smokers, each reduction of 5 cigarettes/day was associated with a 72% decline in mortality risk (P < 0.001) but did not reach statistical significant for repeated revascularizations (0.80 [95% CI: 0.46-1.37], P = 0.4132). Despite a higher risk of revascularization, the cessation of smoking either before or after PCI is beneficial in all-cause mortality. The apparent smoker's paradox may be explained by the differences in baseline risk or the reduced sensitivity to adverse outcomes as well as the reluctance to seek medical help among smokers. This study received an unrestricted grant from Pfizer Investment Co., China. The authors have no other funding, financial relationships, or conflicts of interest to disclose.Clinical Cardiology 05/2012; 35(9):570-4. · 1.83 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cigarette smoking strongly increases morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular causes, but the relevance of smoking in patients treated with drug-eluting stents (DES) is unknown. To assess the impact of smoking on the presentation and outcome of patients treated with DES. We analyzed data from the prospective multicentre German Drug-Eluting Stent Registry (DES.DE) and identified 1,122 patients who had never smoked and 1,052 patients who were current smokers. Smokers were younger (56.5 vs. 69.4 years, p < 0.0001), more often males, with less frequent diabetes and hypertension compared to non-smokers. Smokers presented more often with acute coronary syndromes. After a mean follow-up of 12.5 months, smokers had both higher mortality (4.6 vs. 2.7%, p < 0.05) and myocardial infarction (MI) rates (4.9 vs. 3%, p < 0.01). There was no significant difference between smokers and non-smokers in the rate of target vessel revascularization (9.8 vs. 11.4%, p = 0.26). Major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (defined as the composite of death, MI and stroke, MACCE) were higher in smokers (10.6 vs. 6.1%, p < 0.001). Moreover, after adjustment for baseline clinical and angiographic variables, smoking continued to be a strong independent predictor for MACCE (OR = 2.34, 95% CI 1.49-3.68). In a subgroup analysis, we found that the increased risk of smoking was most prominent in patients presenting with stable angina pectoris (OR = 3.71, 95% CI 1.24-2.57, p < 0.05). Smoking almost doubled the risk for MACCE in acute MI patients, though this did not reach statistical significance (adjusted OR = 1.91, 95% CI 0.93-3.94, p = 0.74). This large multicentre DES registry provides evidence that smokers treated with DES, despite lower incidence of predisposing risk factors for atherosclerosis, experience higher rates of death and MI compared to non-smokers, particularly in the setting of stable coronary artery disease. Smoking has only marginal effects on target vessel revascularization rates in patients treated with DES.Clinical Research in Cardiology 12/2010; 100(5):413-23. · 3.67 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Many military veterans in the United States with coronary artery disease continue to smoke despite undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Previous studies have described improved cardiovascular outcomes in smokers, the so-called "smokers' paradox." In this study, we examined the effects of smoking on cardiovascular outcomes following PCI. HYPOTHESIS: Do patients who smoke have different post-PCI outcomes than nonsmokers? METHODS: All patients who underwent PCI at a single US Veterans Administration hospital from 2004 to 2009 were followed. Outcomes of interest included myocardial infarction, unplanned coronary intervention, unplanned cardiac hospitalization, death, and a composite of events for 6 months after PCI. Changes in traditional risk factors were also assessed. RESULTS: Unadjusted analysis revealed that in almost all categories, smokers had lower incidence of adverse events than nonsmokers. However, after adjusting for the older age of the nonsmokers, no favorable statistical trend toward smokers was seen. Significant improvement in blood pressure and lipid levels were seen in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: After adjusting for differences in age, there did not appear to be any protective effect of smoking on cardiovascular outcomes following PCI. Smokers achieved similar degrees of risk factor optimization during the follow-up period as their nonsmoker counterparts. Aggressive efforts to decrease the prevalence of smoking must be maintained.Clinical Cardiology 05/2013; · 1.83 Impact Factor