Refined histopathologic scoring system improves power to detect colitis QTL in mice.
ABSTRACT Induction of colitis in mice by a targeted mutation in the I110 gene is inbred strain dependent. C3H/ HeJBir (C3H) mice are colitis susceptible while C57BL/6J (B6) mice are resistant. Identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) determining the differential strain responsiveness requires histopathologic scoring of multiple lesion subphenotypes in both cecum and colon. Here we show that ability to detect a major C3H-derived QTL on Chr 3 (cytokine deficiency-induced colitis susceptibility 1, Cdcs1) was critically dependent upon the degree of refinement of the histopathologic scoring system. QTL mapping was performed using a first-back-cross population of interleukin-10-deficient mice and applying two different grading systems to assess lesion subphenotypes. The same histological specimens were scored by two independent pathologists using either a very detailed scoring system for four subphenotypes developed at The Jackson Laboratory (TJL) or a simpler scoring system developed at the Hannover Medical School (MHH). The more detailed TJL subphenotyping protocol increased power to identify Cdcs1 (a maximum LOD score of 4.28 versus a LOD score of 1.77 when using the abbreviated MHH subphenotyping scoring system). This study shows that for QTL mapping in a mouse model of colitis, in which histology represents the gold standard for phenotyping, ability to detect linkage is critically dependent upon the degree of refinement adopted for separately scoring the multiple histopathologic lesions comprising this complex phenotype.
SourceAvailable from: Sunil Yeruva[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A dysfunction of the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger isoform 3 (NHE3) significantly contributes to the reduced salt absorptive capacity of the inflamed intestine. We previously reported a strong decrease in the NHERF family member PDZK1 (NHERF3), which binds to NHE3 and regulates its function in a mouse model of colitis. The present study investigates whether a causal relationship exists between the decreased PDZK1 expression and the NHE3 dysfunction in human and murine intestinal inflammation. Biopsies from the colon of patients with ulcerative colitis, murine inflamed ileal and colonic mucosa, NHE3-transfected Caco-2BBe colonic cells with short hairpin RNA (shRNA) knockdown of PDZK1, and Pdzk1-gene-deleted mice were studied. PDZK1 mRNA and protein expression was strongly decreased in inflamed human and murine intestinal tissue as compared to inactive disease or control tissue, whereas that of NHE3 or NHERF1 was not. Inflamed human and murine intestinal tissues displayed correct brush border localization of NHE3 but reduced acid-activated NHE3 transport activity. A similar NHE3 transport defect was observed when PDZK1 protein content was decreased by shRNA knockdown in Caco-2BBe cells or when enterocyte PDZK1 protein content was decreased to similar levels as found in inflamed mucosa by heterozygote breeding of Pdzk1-gene-deleted and WT mice. We conclude that a decrease in PDZK1 expression, whether induced by inflammation, shRNA-mediated knockdown, or heterozygous breeding, is associated with a decreased NHE3 transport rate in human and murine enterocytes. We therefore hypothesize that inflammation-induced loss of PDZK1 expression may contribute to the NHE3 dysfunction observed in the inflamed intestine.Pflügers Archiv - European Journal of Physiology 10/2014; DOI:10.1007/s00424-014-1608-x · 3.07 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR) and its ligand, ghrelin, are important modulators in weight control and energy homeostasis. Recently, ghrelin is also involved in experimental colitis, but the role of GHSR in the development of colitis is unclear. The aim was to examine the underlying mechanism of GHSR in IBD development. The temporal expression of GHSR/ghrelin was determined in dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) induced colitis in Wt mice. The severity of DSS induced colitis from GHSR(-/-) and WT mice was compared at clinical/pathological levels. Furthermore, the function of macrophages was evaluated in vivo and in vitro. Lack of GHSR attenuated colitis significantly at the clinical and pathological levels with reduced colonic pro-inflammatory cytokines (P < 0.05). This is consistent with the observation of less colonic macrophage infiltration and TLRs expression from DSS-treated GHSR(-/-) mice compared to WT mice (P < 0.05). Furthermore, there was significantly reduced pro-inflammatory cytokines in LPS-stimulated macrophages in vitro from GHSR(-/-) mice than WT mice (P < 0.05). Moreover, D-lys(3)-GHRP6 (a GHSR antagonist) reduced LPS-induced macrophage pro-inflammatory cytokines from WT mice in vitro. GHSR contributes to development of acute DSS-induced colitis, likely via elevated pro-inflammatory cytokines and activation of macrophages. These data suggest GHSR as a potential therapeutic target for IBD.12/2015; 5(1):12. DOI:10.1186/s13578-015-0002-5
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ABSTRACT: Background In the respiratory mucosa, interleukin (IL)-33, has been shown to enhance T helper 2 (TH2)-type responses through the master regulatory gene GATA-3. IL-33 is upregulated in ulcerative colitis (UC), and the aim was to assess if IL-33 holds a similar key position in the shaping of the immune response in experimental colitis (piroxicam-accelerated colitis (PAC) in IL-10 −/− mice, dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) model) and UC. Methods Colonic IL-33 expression was determined in UC (8 active UC, 8 quiescent UC, and 7 controls) and experimental colitis. Mesenteric lymph node (MesLN) T cells were isolated from PAC IL-10 −/− mice and stimulated with IL-33. Results The colonic IL-33 expression was significantly upregulated all forms of colitis (P P GATA-3 expression levels (P H1-specific T-bet expression was observed. MesLN T cells stimulated with IL-33 had increased GATA-3 expression, and showed an IL-33 dose-dependent increase in secreted TH2-type cytokines, whereas this effect was abolished by blocking IL-33 signaling. The non-TH2-type cytokine IL-17 was upregulated by IL-33 but in a T cell receptor dependent manner, as opposed to TH2-type cytokines, which required only IL-33 stimulation. Conclusions The study demonstrates that intestinal IL-33 is capable of inducing GATA-3 in mucosal T cells, and suggests that IL-33 is a key mediator of pathological TH2 and non-TH2-type responses in intestinal inflammation. Blocking IL-33 signaling could be a feasible option in the treatment of UC.Journal of Gastroenterology 08/2014; 50(2). DOI:10.1007/s00535-014-0982-7 · 4.02 Impact Factor