A transient increase in the activity of Src-family kinases induced by cell detachment delays anoikis of intestinal epithelial cells.
ABSTRACT Detachment of epithelial cells from the basement membrane (BM) induces apoptosis, a phenomenon now widely known as anoikis. Studies in mammary and intestinal epithelial cells have shown that the loss of attachment to the BM rapidly triggers reversible proapoptotic events from which the cells can recover if they reattach within a certain period. Thus, cells seem to be transiently protected from the initial detachment-induced proapoptotic events. The molecular mechanisms underlying such transient protection against anoikis are unknown. In this paper, we present evidence indicating that detachment of intestinal epithelial cells triggers a transient, yet significant increase in the activity of the tyrosine kinases c-Src and c-Fyn, and that this activation of Src-family kinases (SFK) contributes to the transient protection against anoikis in these cells. The protective signals from SFK are mediated by the PI3K pathway, and caveolin-1. In addition, we show that the MEK1-ERK1/2 pathway acts in a synergistic manner with SFK to protect intestinal epithelial cells from anoikis.
Article: B1 integrin/Fak/Src signaling in intestinal epithelial crypt cell survival: integration of complex regulatory mechanisms.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The molecular determinants which dictate survival and apoptosis/anoikis in human intestinal crypt cells remain to be fully understood. To this effect, the roles of beta1 integrin/Fak/Src signaling to the PI3-K/Akt-1, MEK/Erk, and p38 pathways, were investigated. The regulation of six Bcl-2 homologs (Bcl-2, Mcl-1, Bcl-X(L), Bax, Bak, Bad) was likewise analyzed. We report that: (1) Anoikis causes a down-activation of Fak, Src, Akt-1 and Erk1/2, a loss of Fak-Src association, and a sustained/enhanced activation of p38beta, which is required as apoptosis/anoikis driver; (2) PI3-K/Akt-1 up-regulates the expression of Bcl-X(L) and Mcl-1, down-regulates Bax and Bak, drives Bad phosphorylation (both serine112/136 residues) and antagonizes p38beta activation; (3) MEK/Erk up-regulates Bcl-2, drives Bad phosphorylation (serine112 residue), but does not antagonize p38bactivation; (4) PI3-K/Akt-1 is required for survival, whereas MEK/Erk is not; (5) Src acts as a cornerstone in the engagement of both pathways by beta1 integrins/Fak, and is crucial for survival; and (6) beta1 integrins/Fak and/or Src regulate Bcl-2 homologs as both PI3-K/Atk-1 and MEK/Erk combined. Hence, beta1 integrin/Fak/Src signaling translates into integrated mediating functions of p38beta activation and regulation of Bcl-2 homologs by PI3-K/Akt-1 and MEK/Erk, consequently determining their requirement (or not) for survival.Apoptosis 05/2008; 13(4):531-42. · 4.07 Impact Factor
Article: Targeted subendothelial matrix oxidation by myeloperoxidase triggers myosin II-dependent de-adhesion and alters signaling in endothelial cells.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: During inflammation, myeloperoxidase (MPO) released by circulating leukocytes accumulates within the subendothelial matrix by binding to and transcytosing the vascular endothelium. Oxidative reactions catalyzed by subendothelial-localized MPO are implicated as a cause of endothelial dysfunction in vascular disease. While the subendothelial matrix is a key target for MPO-derived oxidants during disease, the implications of this damage for endothelial morphology and signaling are largely unknown. We found that endothelial-transcytosed MPO produced hypochlorous acid (HOCl) that reacted locally with the subendothelial matrix and induced covalent cross-linking of the adhesive matrix protein fibronectin. Real-time biosensor and live cell imaging studies revealed that HOCl-mediated matrix oxidation triggered rapid membrane retraction from the substratum and adjacent cells (de-adhesion). De-adhesion was linked with the alteration of Tyr-118 phosphorylation of paxillin, a key adhesion-dependent signaling process, as well as Rho kinase-dependent myosin light chain-2 phosphorylation. De-adhesion dynamics were dependent on the contractile state of cells, with myosin II inhibition with blebbistatin attenuating the rate of membrane retraction. Rho kinase inhibition with Y-27632 also conferred protection, but not during the initial phase of membrane retraction, which was driven by preexisting actomyosin tensile stress. Notably, diversion of MPO from HOCl production by thiocyanate or nitrite attenuated de-adhesion and associated signaling responses, despite the latter substrate supporting MPO-catalyzed fibronectin nitration. These data show that subendothelial-localized MPO employs a novel "outside-in" mode of redox signaling, involving HOCl-mediated matrix oxidation. These MPO-catalyzed oxidative events are likely to play a previously unrecognized role in altering endothelial integrity and signaling during inflammatory vascular disorders.Free radical biology & medicine 10/2012; · 5.42 Impact Factor
Article: FAK regulates intestinal epithelial cell survival and proliferation during mucosal wound healing.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Following damage to the intestinal epithelium, restoration of epithelial barrier integrity is triggered by a robust proliferative response. In other tissues, focal adhesion kinase (FAK) regulates many of the cellular processes that are critical for epithelial homeostasis and restitution, including cell migration, proliferation and survival. However, few studies to date have determined how FAK contributes to mucosal wound healing in vivo. To examine the role of FAK in intestinal epithelial homeostasis and during injury, we generated intestinal epithelium (IE)-specific conditional FAK knockout mice. Colitis was induced with dextran-sulfate-sodium (DSS) and intestinal tissues were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting. While intestinal development occurred normally in mice lacking FAK, FAK-deficient animals were profoundly susceptible to colitis. The loss of epithelial FAK resulted in elevated p53 expression and an increased sensitivity to apoptosis, coincident with a failure to upregulate epithelial cell proliferation. FAK has been reported to function as a mechanosensor, inducing cyclin D1 expression and promoting cell cycle progression under conditions in which tissue/matrix stiffness is increased. Collagen deposition, a hallmark of inflammatory injury resulting in increased tissue rigidity, was observed in control and FAK knockout mice during colitis. Despite this fibrotic response, the colonic epithelium in FAK-deficient mice exhibited significantly reduced cyclin D1 expression, suggesting that proliferation is uncoupled from fibrosis in the absence of FAK. In support of this hypothesis, proliferation of Caco-2 cells increased proportionally with matrix stiffness in vitro only under conditions of normal FAK expression; FAK depleted cells exhibited reduced proliferation concomitant with attenuated cyclin D1 expression. In the colon, FAK functions as a regulator of epithelial cell survival and proliferation under conditions of mucosal injury and a mechanosensor of tissue compliance, inducing repair-driven proliferation in the colonic epithelium through upregulation of cyclin D1.PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(8):e23123. · 4.09 Impact Factor