Prevalence and correlates of stunting among primary school children in rural areas of southern Pakistan
ABSTRACT Protein-energy malnutrition is one of the leading causes of childhood morbidity and mortality in developing countries. The purpose of the present study was to measure the prevalence of stunting and its correlates among school children aged 6-12 years in the rural areas of southern Pakistan. We selected 1915 children aged 6-12 years enrolled in 32 primary schools in rural Sindh, Pakistan. Trained community health workers conducted child height and weight measurements and collected information from the parents. The Z-scores for the distribution of height-for-age, weight-for-age, and weight-for-height relative to those of National Center for Health Statistics/Center of Disease Control and prevention (NCHS/CDC) reference population were calculated. Out of 1915 children, 300 (16.5 per cent) were stunted. Female children compared to males were more likely to be stunted (prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.26; 95 per cent confidence interval (CI): 1.02-1.53). Children older than 7 years were more likely to be stunted (PR, 1.40; CI, 1.14-1.72). Fathers who were working as government employees (PR, 1.71; CI, 1.05-2.79), shopkeepers (PR, 2.00; CI, 1.22-3.26) and farmers (PR, 1.43; CI, 0.93-2.22) were more likely to have children who were stunted when compared to landlords. In rural areas of southern Pakistan, sex of child, age of the child, and father's occupation may be considered as important risk factors for stunting among school children aged 6-12 years.
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ABSTRACT: A cross sectional descriptive study was conducted using a structured questionnaire and anthropometric measurements to assess chronic malnutrition (stunting) and acute malnutrition (wasting) for 570 children at 60 to 180 months age, including 294 girls and 276 boys at Dar EL Salam, Khartoum State, Sudan. The prevalence of malnutrition was calculated using World Health Organization (WHO) Anthro Plus; it was shown that severe and moderate chronic malnutrition in both male and female was 4.6 and 15.25%, respectively. The prevalence of chronic malnutrition (stunting) in male was 6.2 and 17.43% for severe and moderate stunting and in females was 3.03 and 12.85% for severe and moderate stunting, respectively. The prevalence of acute malnutrition in both males and females according to the BMI-forage body mass index (BMI) was 6.99 and 19.19% for severe and moderate acute malnutrition. The prevalence of acute malnutrition (wasting) in males was 6.66 and 19.66% for severe and moderate acute malnutrition and in female was 6.95 and 18.93% for severe and moderate acute malnutrition.
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ABSTRACT: Background Parasitic infection like schistosomiasis is known to exert a negative effect on nutritional status of school-aged children. However, studies associating parasitic infections with undernutrition are scarce. Thus, this study was primarily to document the association between Schistosoma mansoni infection and undernutrition among school-aged children in a rural setting of Fincha’a Sugar Estate, Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on a total of 453 school-aged children (5-18 years). Stool specimen was collected and examined using the standard Kato-katz technique. Children’s height-for-Age Z-score (HAZ) and Body mass index-for-Age Z- score (BAZ) was determined. Z-Scores for each nutritional index were compared with the WHO child growth standards reference values. Children were considered stunted or wasted as HAZ or BAZ falls below -2 standard deviations, respectively. Result The overall prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni infection was 53.2%. Out of the total school children examined, 11.5% and 13.2% were stunted and wasted, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was done to determine the relationship between Schistosoma mansoni infection and nutritional status controlling for other factors. Accordingly, stunting was not significantly associated while wasting was negatively associated with Schistosoma mansoni infection. Paternal occupation was the best predictor of stunting and wasting such that, unemployed fathers have 4.28 (95% CI; 2.13, 8.63) (p < 0.001) and 3.83, 95% CI; 1.89, 7.79) (p < 0.001) chance of having stunted and wasted children, respectively. Conclusion Schistosoma mansoni infection is highly prevalent in the study area. The high prevalence of wasting, and moderate level of stunting among study subjects in this study area indicate that they are affected by both infection and undernutrition. Therefore, regular preventive chemotherapy against S. mansoni and other control measures are recommended. Moreover, possibilities of synchronized nutritional rehabilitation and creation of employment opportunities to the families should be looked for. Keywords: Schistosoma mansoni; Under nutrition; Stunting; Wasting; School children; EthiopiaBMC Research Notes 10/2014; 7(1):763. DOI:10.1186/1756-0500-7-763