Employee Stress and Health Complaints in Jobs with and without Electronic Performance Monitoring
ABSTRACT Current applications of electronic performance monitoring based on job design theories that consider worker performance rather than stress issues are likely to generate unsatisfying and stressful jobs (Smith et al, 1986). This study examines critical job design elements that could influence worker stress responses in an electronic monitoring context. A questionnaire survey of employees in telecommunications companies representative of each region in the United States examined job stress in directory assistance, service representative and clerical jobs with specific emphasis on the influence of electronic monitoring of job performance, satisfaction and employee health. Useable surveys were received from 745 employees representing seven operating companies and AT & T; a response rate of about 25%. The results of this survey indicated that employees who had their performance electronically monitored perceived their working conditions as more stressful, and reported higher levels of job boredom, psychological tension, anxiety, depression, anger, health complaints and fatigue. It is postulated that these effects may be related to changes in job design due to electronic performance monitoring.
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Article: Employee Stress and Health Complaints in Jobs with and without Electronic Performance Monitoring
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- "In one study of monitoring as a stressor, 745 telecommunication workers working within the same company were compared based upon several psychological and physical health outcomes (Smith, Carayon, Sanders, Lim, & LeGrande, 1992). Employees who were constantly electronically monitored at work perceived their working conditions as significantly more stressful and reported significantly higher levels of psychological tension, anxiety, depression, anger, health complaints, and fatigue (Smith et al., 1992). "
ABSTRACT: Even though reward systems play a central role in the management of organizations, their impact on stress and the well-being of workers is not well understood. We review the literature linking performance-based reward systems to various indicators of employee stress and well-being. Well-controlled experiments in field settings suggest that certain types of performance-based reward systems, such as piece rate pay, cause increases in psychological and physiological stress. Such findings are mirrored in nonexperimental studies as well, but the causal mechanisms for such effects are not well understood. We argue that reward systems generally deserve much more attention in the work stress literature, and identify several mediating and moderating variables worthy of study.Journal of Organizational Behavior Management 10/2011; 31(4):221-235. DOI:10.1080/01608061.2011.619388 · 1.23 Impact Factor
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- "Carayon (1993) proposed a conceptual model within which performance monitoring is considered as a technological work stressor, and there is empirical evidence of links to increased stress (Aiello & Shao, 1993; Smith, Carayon, Sanders , Lim & LeGrande, 1992). A study in the telecommunications industry (Smith et al., 1992) showed that monitored employees reported higher levels of work pressure than did employees whose performance was not monitored. Carayon (1993) also found higher employee stress where monitoring is highly intensive , frequent, continuous, and irregular. "
ABSTRACT: Call centers can be considered as lean service systems, with leanness being described in terms of both dialog scripting and performance monitoring. Using data from a sample of 823 call handlers from 36 call centers, these lean characteristics are examined in relation to the prediction of call handler job-related strain. Moreover, the extent to which this relationship can be accounted for by work design characteristics are examined. Findings confirm that employees who experience greater dialog scripting and more intensive performance monitoring show higher levels of strain. These relationships are fully mediated by work design. These findings demonstrate the importance of considering the impact of lean working practices on employee health.Journal of Occupational Health Psychology 05/2006; 11(2):197-212. DOI:10.1037/1076-89184.108.40.206 · 2.07 Impact Factor
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- "ployee computers, track how long employees were at their workstations, what software they used, and many other details of their computer use. Field research has provided substantial evidence that electronic monitoring of job performance has adverse associations with job satisfaction, psychological distress , job performance, and a number of related variables (Chalykoff & Kochan, 1989; DiTecco, Cwitco, Arsenault, & Andre, 1992; Kidwell & Bennett, 1994; Kraut, Dumais, & Koch, 1989; Smith, Carayon, Sanders, Lim, & LeGrande, 1992; Westin, 1992). A variety of laboratory-based investigations have attempted to unpack these effects by contrasting various conditions of computer monitoring, direct supervision , and no supervision (e.g., Aiello & Kolb, 1995; Aiello & Svec, 1993; Galletta & Grant, 1995; Griffith, 1993; Stanton & Barnes-Farrell, 1996). "
ABSTRACT: Participants (N = 115) performed a computerized task under 3 conditions: no supervision, direct human supervision, and computer monitoring. Differences in performance across groups was evaluated using summary performance measures and detailed analyses of group performance over time. There was a statistically significant difference in performance quality but not performance quantity between the groups. The nonmonitored and computer-monitored groups had higher quality of performance compared with the direct human supervision group. Performance varied when examined in detail at different points in time during the experimental task. Together the results suggest that direct human supervision motivated participants but that participants in the other 2 groups were more sensitive to varying task demands.International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction 10/2003; 16:345-366. DOI:10.1207/S15327590IJHC1602_11 · 0.72 Impact Factor