Relapse prevention in patients with bipolar disorder: Cognitive therapy outcome after 2 years
ABSTRACT In a previous randomized controlled study, the authors reported significant beneficial effects of cognitive therapy for relapse prevention in bipolar disorder patients up to 1 year. This study reports additional 18-month follow-up data and presents an overview of the effect of therapy over 30 months.
Patients with DSM-IV bipolar I disorder (N=103) suffering from frequent relapses were randomly assigned into a cognitive therapy plus medication group or a control condition of medication only. Independent raters, who were blind to patient group status, assessed patients at 6-month intervals.
Over 30 months, the cognitive therapy group had significantly better outcome in terms of time to relapse. However, the effect of relapse prevention was mainly in the first year. The cognitive therapy group also spent 110 fewer days (95% CI=32 to 189) in bipolar episodes out of a total of 900 for the whole 30 months and 54 fewer days (95% CI=3 to 105) in bipolar episodes out of a total of 450 for the last 18 months. Multivariate analyses of variance showed that over the last 18 months, the cognitive therapy group exhibited significantly better mood ratings, social functioning, coping with bipolar prodromes, and dysfunctional goal attainment cognition.
Patients in the cognitive therapy group had significantly fewer days in bipolar episodes after the effect of medication compliance was controlled. However, the results showed that cognitive therapy had no significant effect in relapse reduction over the last 18 months of the study period. Further studies should explore the effect of booster sessions or maintenance therapy.
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ABSTRACT: Objective This article reviews psychological therapies in the treatment of bipolar disorder, in particular psychoeducation, and how the inclusion of four fundamental principles – patient/therapist communication, flow of information, patient involvement and a trusting relationship – can improve patient outcomes. Method The content of this article is based on the proceedings of a 1-day standalone symposium in November 2011 exploring how to establish a bipolar clinic within the context of existing services in the UK's National Health Service. ResultsCertain psychological interventions have emerged as beneficial add-on treatments to pharmacotherapy in bipolar disorder and are associated with greater stabilisation of symptoms, fewer relapses and longer time to relapse. Psychoeducation is a simple approach to support prevention of future episodes by delivering behavioural training to improve illness insight, early symptom identification and development of coping strategies. Empowering patients to actively participate in their treatment provides independence, counteracts the current disconnect of therapist and patient, and increases awareness and understanding of the challenges of living with and treating bipolar disorder. Conclusion Psychoeducation enables patients to understand bipolar disorder, get actively involved in therapy planning, and be aware of methods for episode prevention, therefore effectively contributing to improved treatment outcomes and patient quality of life.Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 05/2013; 127(s442). DOI:10.1111/acps.12118 · 5.55 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Comorbid anxiety is common in bipolar spectrum disorders [BPSD], and is associated with poor outcomes. Its clinical relevance is highlighted by the "anxious distress specifier" in the revised criteria for Bipolar Disorders in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual 5th Edition [DSM-5]. This article reviews evidence for the effectiveness of psychological therapy for anxiety in adults with BPSD (bipolar I, II, not otherwise specified, cyclothymia, and rapid cycling disorders). A systematic search yielded 22 treatment studies that included an anxiety-related outcome measure. Cognitive behavioural therapy [CBT] for BPSD incorporating an anxiety component reduces anxiety symptoms in cyclothymia, "refractory" and rapid cycling BPSD, whereas standard bipolar treatments have only a modest effect on anxiety. Preliminary evidence is promising for CBT for post-traumatic stress disorder and generalised anxiety disorder in BPSD. Psychoeducation alone does not appear to reduce anxiety, and data for mindfulness-based cognitive therapy [MBCT] appear equivocal. CBT during euthymic phases has the greatest weight of evidence. Where reported, psychological therapy appears acceptable and safe, but more systematic collection and reporting of safety and acceptability information is needed. Development of psychological models and treatment protocols for anxiety in BPSD may help improve outcomes. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.Clinical Psychology Review 11/2014; 35C:19-34. DOI:10.1016/j.cpr.2014.11.002 · 7.18 Impact Factor