How do individuals sleep around the world? Results from a single-day survey in ten countries
ABSTRACT To describe between-country differences in both the prevalence and type of sleep disorders seen across the globe, and to provide information on how impaired sleep impacts daytime functioning.
The study is a large-scale, global cross-sectional survey conducted on International Sleep Well Day (March 21), 2002. A standardized questionnaire was used in 10 countries under the guidance of local survey managers. In addition, the Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS) and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) were completed. Subjects included in the study were adults from 10 countries representing different continents with clear variations in lifestyle.
The total number of questionnaires collected was 35,327. Overall, 24% of subjects reported that they did not sleep well. According to self-assessments using the AIS, 31.6% of subjects had 'insomnia', while another 17.5% could be considered as having 'sub-threshold insomnia'. According to ESS scores, 11.6% of subjects were found to be 'very sleepy' or 'dangerously sleepy' during the day.
Although there seem to be important global variations in the prevalence of insomnia, its symptoms and their management, about one in four individuals do not think they sleep well. Moreover, self-reported sleep problems could be underestimated in the general population. Overall, there is a need for increased awareness of the importance of disturbed sleep and the improved detection and management of sleep disorders.
- SourceAvailable from: Diego Ojeda
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- "The Epworth sleepiness scale was created in 1991 as a tool to quantify levels of daytime sleepiness and it has been used in a large number of clinical studies  . Prevalence of EDS in the general population, defined by the ESS, in different countries ranges from 6.2 to 32.4%              (Table 1), with a moderate heritability of approximately 38% to 40%    . This evidence highlights the importance of studying the role of genetic polymorphisms in increased diurnal somnolence . "
ABSTRACT: Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) is one of the main causes of car and industrial accidents and it is associated with increased morbidity and alterations in quality of life. Prevalence of EDS in the general population around the world ranges from 6.2 to 32.4%, with a heritability of 38-40%. However, few studies have explored the role of candidate genes in EDS. Monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene has an important role in the regulation of neurotransmitter levels and a large number of human behaviors. We hypothesized that a functional VNTR in the promoter region of the MAOA gene might be associated with daytime sleepiness in healthy individuals. The Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS) was applied to 210 Colombian healthy subjects (university students), which were genotyped for MAOA-uVNTR. MAOA-uVNTR showed a significant association with ESS scores (p=0.01): 3/3 genotype carriers had the lowest scores. These results were supported by differences in MAOA-uVNTR frequencies between diurnal somnolence categories (p=0.03). Our finding provides evidence for the first time that MAOA-uVNTR has a significant association with EDS in healthy subjects. Finally, these data suggest that functional variations in MAOA gene could have a role in other phenotypes of neuropsychiatric relevance.Journal of the neurological sciences 12/2013; 337(1-2). DOI:10.1016/j.jns.2013.12.005 · 2.26 Impact Factor
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- "However, the sleep quality among our controls was also noteworthy, as 23% of our controls had an ESS score higher than 10 (suggesting EDS). These figures are much higher to those found in a study involving the general population from 10 countries, in which 11 (6%) of the studied population had EDS . Moreover, Giorelli et al. found a higher prevalence of EDS among Brazilian PWE in comparison to data obtained from other countries . "
ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to assess excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), sleep quality, and sleep disorders in a cohort of patients with epilepsy in the city of Florianopolis in southern Brazil. One hundred and forty patients diagnosed with epilepsy were assessed by questionnaires that included demographic and clinical variables, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), the Stanford Sleepiness Scale (SSS), and the Fletcher & Luckett Adapted Questionnaire (FLAQ). These data were then compared to data from a control group (n=85). Compared to controls, patients with epilepsy (PWE) had significantly higher scores on the ESS (p=0.003), higher scores on the "daytime dysfunction" domain of the PSQI (p=0.002), and more symptoms that suggested obstructive sleep apnea in the FLAQ (p<0.001). By performing multiple linear regression models, we demonstrated that age, male gender, the presence of secondarily generalized seizures, and phenobarbital use were slightly to moderately correlated with PSQI (r=0.38) and FLAQ (r=0.51) but not with SSS scores. We concluded that PWE had more EDS, daytime dysfunction, and sleep disorders compared to a control group.Epilepsy & Behavior 08/2013; 29(1):63-66. DOI:10.1016/j.yebeh.2013.06.029 · 2.06 Impact Factor
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- "In this study, one-fifth of Brazilian workers reported poor sleep quality. A similar finding was found in another study in the Brazilian population (19%) , but there is a wide range of reported prevalence in international surveys (7–45%)    . These differences might be partially explained by particular characteristics of the study sample, methodology, and unique operational definitions of selfperceived sleep quality, making it difficult to compare sleep patterns. "
ABSTRACT: To examine perceived poor sleep quality and its association with unhealthy lifestyle and self-reported morbidities among Brazilian workers. This study was part of a national survey involving 47,477 workers who received a questionnaire about lifestyle. Chi-square tests and logistic regression (OR=Odds Ratio) were conducted. Poor sleep quality was reported by 21% of workers and was more prevalent among women (p<0.01). After being adjusted for socio-demographic indicators, negative perception of health, well-being, stress, self-reported morbidities, physical inactivity during leisure-time (OR: 1.18) in both genders, and inadequate fruit and vegetable intake (OR(men): 1.15; OR(women): 1.17), as well as excessive alcohol consumption (OR: 1.15) in men remained associated with poor sleep quality. With respect to morbidities, only diabetes in women (OR: 1.46) and hypertension in men (OR: 1.18) were associated with poor sleep quality. Our findings indicate that certain unhealthy behaviors and self-reported morbidities were associated with poor sleep quality. Efficient initiatives should be implemented to promote a healthier lifestyle among workers, which could reduce or control glucose levels and blood pressure in addition to improving perceived sleep quality.Sleep Medicine 08/2012; 13(9):1198-201. DOI:10.1016/j.sleep.2012.05.009 · 3.10 Impact Factor