A pilot study on the combined therapy of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and hepatitis B vaccine on chronic hepatitis B virus carrier children.
ABSTRACT To observe the efficacy of treating intrauterine infected chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) carrier children with a combination of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) or hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) plus recombinant hepatitis B vaccine (rHBvac).
A total of 27 chronic HBV infected children, who were born to HBV carrier mothers and received hepatitis B immunoprophylaxis at birth, were randomized into 2 groups: one receiving a combined therapy of 50 micro g of GM-CSF plus 10 micro g of rHBvac injected intramuscularly at the same location (GM-CSF group, 14 children) or 200 IU HBIG and 10 micro g rHBvac in different muscles (HBIG group, 13 children) on a monthly four-dose schedule. HBV-DNA quantification and other HBV serological markers were tested before and after the four-dose therapy.
Twelve children in each group completed the study. Of them, 3 children in the GM-CSF group and 4 in the HBIG group had elevated serum alanine transaminase (ALT) before the trial, and then 2 in each group became ALT normal after the treatment. Before the therapy, hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) positivity was found in nine children in the GM-CSF group and 10 in the HBIG group. One from each group had an HBeAg/anti-HBe seroconversion after the treatment. The quantity of HBV-DNA was significantly lower after the treatment (P = 0.023) in GM-CSF group, but was not significantly reduced in HBIG group. No subjects were found to be negative for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) after the treatment, and no serious adverse events occurred in either group.
Combined GM-CSF and rHBvac therapy inhibit HBV replication in carrier children who were not protected after treatment with immunoprophylaxis.
Article: Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor as an adjuvant for hepatitis B vaccination: a meta-analysis.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The efficacy of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) to enhance the immune response to hepatitis B virus vaccine has been object of several reports. We searched for randomized controlled clinical trials comparing GM-CSF given concomitantly to hepatitis B virus vaccine to vaccine given alone or with placebo. Data on rates of seroconversion (anti-HBs titers >10 IU/ml) from 13 studies (734 subjects) produced combined estimates that favored GM-CSF as compared to controls: rate ratio after a single immunization was 1.54 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.04-2.27] and 1.20 (95% CI, 1.02-1.42) at the end of the vaccination cycle. Using a logistic approach a significant dose/response effect of GM-CSF was seen. Moreover, in renal failure patients who have responded to the vaccine, GM-CSF increased anti-HBs titers. Our findings suggest that GM-CSF induced a significant effect in terms of response rate and achievement of an earlier seroconversion to the vaccine in the overall populations examined, in renal failure patients and in healthy individuals.Vaccine 01/2007; 25(4):709-18. · 3.77 Impact Factor