Prevention of bleeding episodes in noncirrhotic patients undergoing partial hepatectomy remains unsatisfactory in spite of improved surgical techniques. The authors conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial to evaluate the hemostatic effect and safety of recombinant factor VIIa (rFVIIa) in major partial hepatectomy.
Two hundred four noncirrhotic patients were equally randomized to receive either 20 or 80 microg/kg rFVIIa or placebo. Partial hepatectomy was performed according to local practice at the participating centers. Patients were monitored for 7 days after surgery. Key efficacy parameters were perioperative erythrocyte requirements (using hematocrit as the transfusion trigger) and blood loss. Safety assessments included monitoring of coagulation-related parameters and Doppler examination of hepatic vessels and lower extremities.
The proportion of patients who required perioperative red blood cell transfusion (the primary endpoint) was 37% (23 of 63) in the placebo group, 41% (26 of 63) in the 20-microg/kg group, and 25% (15 of 59) in the 80-microg/kg dose group (logistic regression model; P = 0.09). Mean erythrocyte requirements for patients receiving erythrocytes were 1,024 ml with placebo, 1,354 ml with 20 microg/kg rFVIIa, and 1,036 ml with 80 microg/kg rFVIIa (P = 0.78). Mean intraoperative blood loss was 1,422 ml with placebo, 1,372 ml with 20 microg/kg rFVIIa, and 1,073 ml with 80 microg/kg rFVIIa (P = 0.07). The reduction in hematocrit during surgery was smallest in the 80-microg/kg group, with a significant overall effect of treatment (P = 0.04).
Recombinant factor VIIa dosing did not result in a statistically significant reduction in either the number of patients transfused or the volume of blood products administered. No safety issues were identified.
"Of the pharmacological methods, desmopressin, although used in treating hemophilia, was not effective in reducing blood loss and transfusion needs in patients undergoing liver resection. In a randomized clinical trial, the use of recombinant factor VIIa in major liver resections failed to reduce the number of units transfused . A significant reduction in blood transfusion needs in liver resections has been shown with the use of aprotinin. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background. Hazards of liver surgery have been attenuated by the evolution in methods of hepatic vascular control and the anesthetic management. In this paper, the anesthetic considerations during hepatic vascular occlusion techniques were reviewed. Methods. A Medline literature search using the terms "anesthetic," "anesthesia," "liver," "hepatectomy," "inflow," "outflow occlusion," "Pringle," "hemodynamic," "air embolism," "blood loss," "transfusion," "ischemia-reperfusion," "preconditioning," was performed. Results. Task-orientated anesthetic management, according to the performed method of hepatic vascular occlusion, ameliorates the surgical outcome and improves the morbidity and mortality rates, following liver surgery. Conclusions. Hepatic vascular occlusion techniques share common anesthetic considerations in terms of preoperative assessment, monitoring, induction, and maintenance of anesthesia. On the other hand, the hemodynamic management, the prevention of vascular air embolism, blood transfusion, and liver injury are plausible when the anesthetic plan is scheduled according to the method of hepatic vascular occlusion performed.
HPB Surgery 05/2012; 2012:720754. DOI:10.1155/2012/720754
"Which dose of rFVIIa is appropriate for a bleeding patient who does not have deficiency of coagulation factor VII? One study showed that when patients with chronic liver disease are given 80 μg/kg rVIIa prior to surgical incision during orthotopic liver transplantation, it is both safe and effective . Another study showed that the decline in hematocrit during an operation undergoing liver resection was smallest in the group receiving 80 μg/kg of rFVIIa, and that this was associated with a significant overall improved effect of treatment . In our patient, we administered a half dose of rFVIIa 3 times on the twelfth day. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recombinant activated coagulation factor VII (rFVIIa) is known to be effective in the management of acquired deficiencies of factor VII and platelet function defects. But recently, rFVIIa has been successfully used to treat ongoing bleeding in disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (DIC) condition. The patient reported here was suspected to be suffering from toxic hepatitis on admission. After percutaneous liver biopsy, bleeding occurred and did not stop even after right hepatic artery embolization. The patient developed a severe hemorrhage that resulted in hypovolemic shock, hemoperitoneum, and a massive subcapsular hematoma. The patient then developed DIC due to massive transfusion, as well as acute liver necrosis. The patient was given 400 mug/kg of rFVIIa. Recombinant factor VIIa was administered in an attempt to control the bleeding. This stabilized the hemoglobin levels of the patient. The patient gradually recovered in 4 months. In conclusion, this case suggests that rFVIIa can be successfully used for the hemostasis of uncontrolled bleeding in DIC.
Case Reports in Gastroenterology 02/2009; 3(1):10-15. DOI:10.1159/000203078
"During liver resection, a trend toward reduction of intraoperative blood loss was observed with the higher rFVIIa dose (80 μg/kg) (for example, 1,073 mL versus 1,422 mL on placebo; P = 0.07) . However, the number of patients investigated (n = 63 in the placebo group and n = 59 in the 80 μg/kg rFVIIa group) was too small to achieve a significant result with the proposed reduction of blood loss of approximately 25%. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to determine the role of recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) in abdominal, vascular, and urological surgery.
We conducted meta-analyses of case series and placebo-controlled studies reporting on the treatment or prophylaxis of bleeding with rFVIIa regarding 'reduction or cessation of bleeding', 'mortality', and 'thromboembolism'.
All case reports (n = 15 case reports and 17 patients) documented an effect of rFVIIa in the treatment of bleeding. A meta-analysis of 10 case series revealed a reduction or cessation of bleeding in 39 out of 50 patients after administration of rFVIIa (estimated mean effect 73.2%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 51.0% to 95.4%) and a mean probability of survival of 53.0% (95% CI 26.4% to 79.7%). Among the rFVIIa responders, 19 out of 29 patients (66%) survived versus 1 out of 10 rFVIIa nonresponders (P = 0.003). Six out of 36 patients from the case series had a thromboembolic complication (estimated mean probability 16.5%, 95% CI 1.2% to 31.8%). Compared with a meta-analysis of eight placebo-controlled studies, no increased risk of thromboembolism was seen after administration of rFVIIa.
The meta-analysis of case series showed that, in a mean of 73% patients, rFVIIa achieved at least a reduction of bleeding and that the probability of survival is increased in patients responding to rFVIIa. rFVIIa was not associated with an increased risk of thromboembolism compared with placebo.
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