Recombinant coagulation factor VIIa in major liver resection - A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial
ABSTRACT Prevention of bleeding episodes in noncirrhotic patients undergoing partial hepatectomy remains unsatisfactory in spite of improved surgical techniques. The authors conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial to evaluate the hemostatic effect and safety of recombinant factor VIIa (rFVIIa) in major partial hepatectomy.
Two hundred four noncirrhotic patients were equally randomized to receive either 20 or 80 microg/kg rFVIIa or placebo. Partial hepatectomy was performed according to local practice at the participating centers. Patients were monitored for 7 days after surgery. Key efficacy parameters were perioperative erythrocyte requirements (using hematocrit as the transfusion trigger) and blood loss. Safety assessments included monitoring of coagulation-related parameters and Doppler examination of hepatic vessels and lower extremities.
The proportion of patients who required perioperative red blood cell transfusion (the primary endpoint) was 37% (23 of 63) in the placebo group, 41% (26 of 63) in the 20-microg/kg group, and 25% (15 of 59) in the 80-microg/kg dose group (logistic regression model; P = 0.09). Mean erythrocyte requirements for patients receiving erythrocytes were 1,024 ml with placebo, 1,354 ml with 20 microg/kg rFVIIa, and 1,036 ml with 80 microg/kg rFVIIa (P = 0.78). Mean intraoperative blood loss was 1,422 ml with placebo, 1,372 ml with 20 microg/kg rFVIIa, and 1,073 ml with 80 microg/kg rFVIIa (P = 0.07). The reduction in hematocrit during surgery was smallest in the 80-microg/kg group, with a significant overall effect of treatment (P = 0.04).
Recombinant factor VIIa dosing did not result in a statistically significant reduction in either the number of patients transfused or the volume of blood products administered. No safety issues were identified.
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ABSTRACT: Recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) has been increasingly used to stop life-threatening bleeding following cardiac operations. Nonetheless, the issue of dosing, given the expense and potential for thrombotic complications, is still of major concern. We report our experience with small-dose rFVIIa in patients with refractory bleeding after cardiac surgery. From September 2005 to June 2007, 40 patients (mean age 70.1+/-9.2 years, 52.5 males) received a low dose of rFVIIa (median: 18 microg/kg, interquartile range: 9-16 microg/kg) for refractory bleeding after cardiac surgery. Forty propensity score-based greedy matched controls were compared to the study group. Low dose of rFVIIa significantly reduced the 24-h blood loss: 1610 ml [ 1285-1800 ml] versus 3171 ml [2725-3760 ml] in the study and control groups, respectively (p<0.001). Thus, hourly bleeding was 51.1 ml [34.7-65.4 ml] in patients receiving rFVIIa and 196.2 ml/h [142.1-202.9 ml] in controls (p<0.001). Furthermore, patients receiving rFVIIa showed a lower length of stay in the intensive care unit (p<0.001) and shorter mechanical ventilation time (p<0.001). In addition, the use of rFVIIa was associated with reduction of transfusion requirements of red blood cells, fresh frozen plasma and platelets (all, p<0.001). Finally, treated patients showed improved hemostasis with rapid normalization of coagulation variables (partial thromboplastin time, international normalized ratio, platelet count, p<0.001). In contrast, activated prothrombin time and fibrinogen did not differ between groups (p=ns). No thromboembolic-related event was detected in our cohort. In our experience low-dose rFVIIa was associated with reduced blood loss, improvement of coagulation variables and decreased need for transfusions. Our findings need to be confirmed by further larger studies.European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery 01/2008; 33(1):64-71. DOI:10.1016/j.ejcts.2007.10.004 · 2.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: For patients with a normal coagulation system, who experience serious bleeding, sound evidence for recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) as an effective haemostatic agent is only scarcely available so far from controlled clinical trials. In systematic reviews on the clinical use of rFVIIa, treatment failures were only rarely reported. We present a 45-year old, Caucasian male with persistent intestinal bleeding due to enterocolitis associated with cytomegalovirus infection and acute graft-versus-host-disease. He had received allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation from an unrelated HLA-identical donor because of chronic myelogenous leukaemia diagnosed two years earlier. Bleeding started at day 18 after transplantation with bloody diarrhea, which was treated with multiple transfusions of fresh frozen plasma, platelet, and red blood cell concentrates, and continued relentlessly, despite all efforts, including continued transfusions, high-dose prednisolone, broad antibiotic and antiviral coverage, and tranexamic acid. Recombinant FVIIa was started at boluses of 90-120 mug/kg every 4-8 hours. Despite more than 10 doses, recurrent severe bleeding progressed to refractory shock, multiorgan failure and death. Little can be concluded from single case reports of clinical improvement, because publication bias in favour of positive effects is likely. Our case suggests that rFVIIa is not a panacea, in particular for severe bleeding after bone-marrow transplantation. As long as rigorous, controlled studies or comprehensive registries are lacking, conventional interventions remain the standard of care in non-haemophilic patients with severe bleeding.Thrombosis Journal 02/2006; 4:1. DOI:10.1186/1477-9560-4-1 · 1.31 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: As interest in the use of activated recombinant factor VII (rFVIIa) in trauma grows, questions arise regarding how best to monitor rFVIIa therapy and when rFVIIa may be expected to improve hemostasis. Knowledge of the mechanisms of action may be combined with available data on laboratory monitoring and efficacy in various coagulopathic states in coming to clinically relevant conclusions. This review addresses the physiology of hemostasis, placing emphasis on how rFVIIa influences the process by both tissue factor dependent and tissue factor independent mechanisms. This is extended to a mechanistic consideration of how rFVIIa may function under acidotic, hypothermic, and hemodilutional and/or consumptive conditions of trauma related coagulopathy. When these considerations are viewed alongside the available clinical data, it becomes apparent that rFVIIa has potential to improve hemostasis during trauma coagulopathy, within limitations. Common laboratory procedures are discussed with reference to mechanisms of action of rFVIIa and the available clinical data. Although there is no single assay that can predict rFVIIa efficacy in trauma, the prothrombin time (PT) is recommended as a minimum. Although a shortened PT does not predict success, correction of PT into the normal range may be a better indicator. A nonresponding PT appears to indicate that rFVIIa alone will not lead to hemostasis, and that additional blood products and other measures must be applied. Once the patient is more stable, PT and thromboelastography are recommended.Critical care (London, England) 02/2005; 9 Suppl 5(Suppl 5):S15-24. DOI:10.1186/cc3781