Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia is an autosomal dominant disease in which 25% to 30% of patients will develop gastrointestinal bleeding from telangiectases. The extent of telangiectases has not been previously evaluated. This cross-sectional study compared the presence, number, and size of telangiectases in the stomach and duodenum to those in the jejunum using enteroscopy.
At the Yale University Vascular Malformation Center, 30 consecutive, symptomatic adult patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia were evaluated using a 220-cm-length enteroscope. The number and size of the telangiectases were documented in the esophagus, proximal and distal stomach, four parts of the duodenum, and every 20 cm in the jejunum. The indication for the procedure was recorded as anemia, gastrointestinal bleeding, or anemia out of proportion to epistaxis.
The results of 27 patients were analyzed. A total of 89% of patients had telangiectases in the first 60 cm of the jejunum. In individual patients, there was a strong correlation between the number of telangiectases in the stomach/duodenum when compared with the jejunum. In group analysis, the median number of telangiectases in the stomach and duodenum was significantly higher than in the jejunum (13 vs. 3; Wilcoxon signed rank test, P = 0.001). The presence of large (> or =5 mm) telangiectases in the stomach/duodenum did not necessarily indicate that there would be large telangiectases in the jejunum.
The presence and number of stomach and duodenal telangiectases correlated with the presence and number of jejunal ones. However, the occurrence of large proximal telangiectases was not associated with large distal ones.
"Initial examination may reveal haemodynamic instability, postural hypotension and anaemia. The mean hemoglobin level on admission has been reported to be between 8.4–9.2 g/dl in various studies [7,8]. The average transfusion requirement for the initial resuscitation is usually in excess of three and up to eight units of packed red blood cells [9,10]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this paper we are reporting one case of exsanguinating upper gastrointestinal tract (GIT) bleed requiring massive blood transfusion and immediate life saving surgery.
A 30 years old female, 12 weeks pregnant was referred to our hospital from the earth-quake affected area of Kashmir with history of upper abdominal pain, haematemesis and melaena for one week. After stabilizing the patient, upper gastro-intestinal endoscopy was performed. It revealed gastric ulcer just distal to the gastro-esophageal junction on the lesser curvature. Biopsy from the ulcer edge led to profuse spurting of the blood and patient went into state of shock. Immediate resuscitation led to rebleeding and recurrence of post haemorrahagic shock.
The patient was immediately explored and total gastrectectomy with splenectomy concluded as life saving procedure. A review of literature was conducted to make this report possible.
World Journal of Emergency Surgery 06/2009; 4(1):15. DOI:10.1186/1749-7922-4-15 · 1.47 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report the results of endoscopic laser therapy on 59 patients with upper gastrointestinal vascular ectasia. After 300 sessions, complications were two nonbleeding and three bleeding ulcers, treated successfully with endoscopic therapy. After treatment, blood transfusions were abolished in 61% and reduced in 22% of the patients, whereas 17% of the patients were nonresponders and 5% died for bleeding. Treatment outcome correlated with endoscopic healing, number of yearly transfusions, and lesions' localization. Patients, who did not respond to laser therapy by the sixth session, showed no improvement afterwards. Four patients with persistence of bleeding despite laser therapy underwent surgery and in three of them, a long-term control of bleeding was obtained. In conclusion, laser therapy was safe and effective; nonetheless, surgical treatment should be considered, after adequate staging, for those patients receiving more than 10 blood units per year or who have undergone more than six laser sessions without improvement.
Lasers in Medical Science 10/2006; 21(3):140-6. DOI:10.1007/s10103-006-0389-7 · 2.49 Impact Factor
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