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Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, United States
Journal of Clinical Oncology (Impact Factor: 18.43). 03/2005; 23(4):774-82. DOI: 10.1200/JCO.2005.04.036
Source: PubMed


Obese women and women who gain weight after a breast cancer diagnosis are at a greater risk for breast cancer recurrence and death compared with lean women and women who do not gain weight after diagnosis. In this population-based study, we assessed weight and body fat changes from during the first year of diagnosis to during the third year after diagnosis, and whether any changes in weight and body fat varied by demographic, prognostic, and lifestyle factors in 514 women with incident Stage 0-IIIA breast cancer.
Patients were participants in the Health, Eating, Activity, and Lifestyle (HEAL) study. Weight and body fat (via dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scans) were measured during the baseline visit and 2 years later at a follow-up visit. Analysis of covariance methods were used to obtain mean weight and body fat changes adjusted for potential cofounders.
Women increased their weight and percent body fat by 1.7 +/- 4.7 kg and 2.1% +/- 3.9%, respectively, from during their first year of diagnosis to during their third year of diagnosis. A total of 68% and 74% of patients gained weight and body fat, respectively. Greater increases in weight were observed among women diagnosed with a higher disease stage, younger age, being postmenopausal, and women who decreased their physical activity from diagnosis to up to 3 years after diagnosis (P for trend < .05).
Weight and body fat increased in the postdiagnosis period. Future research should focus on the effect of physical activity on weight and fat loss and breast cancer prognosis.

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Available from: Richard Neil Baumgartner, Sep 30, 2015
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    • "Industrialized countries have higher exposure compared to non-industrialized nations. Immigration to industrialized countries and adopting a western lifestyle appears to increase the risk of developing breast cancer due to food additives or contaminants present in the diet and a higher exposure to environmental pollutants [1] [2] [3] [4]. Less than ten percent of the carcinogens we are exposed to have been tested and new chemicals are constantly found every year [5]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The increased number of women diagnosed with breast cancer in industrialized countries is raising the awareness of possible factors influencing this occurrence. The present work is based on a multi-layer transport model to analyze the concentration of toxins present in the breast ducts. The multi-layer model presented describes the transport of caffeine, cimetidine, aspirin and nicotine during the resting mammary gland period. Additionally, the dermal transport of drugs such as nicotine and aspirin into the resting mammary gland is analyzed. In a unique approach we also present the impact of introducing an external heat flux at the boundaries to increase the diffusion of these particles into the breast ducts. Our model predicts the movement of toxins and/or drugs within the resting mammary glands.
    International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 06/2015; 85:987-995. DOI:10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2015.02.040 · 2.38 Impact Factor
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    • "Current evidence suggests that breast cancer treatments, such as chemotherapy, lead to weight gain and increased adiposity, fatigue, physical inactivity, and negative alterations in components of metabolic syndrome (MetS) [4,10,27]. Metabolic syndrome (MetS), which is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes (6), is a cluster of risk factors including visceral adiposity, hyperglycemia, low serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypertension [28]. MetS is highly prevalent and present in at least 25% of American and European adults [29]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is increasingly present in breast cancer survivors, possibly worsened by cancer-related treatments, such as chemotherapy. MetS greatly increases risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes, co-morbidities that could impair the survivorship experience, and possibly lead to cancer recurrence. Exercise has been shown to positively influence quality of life (QOL), physical function, muscular strength and endurance, reduce fatigue, and improve emotional well-being; however, the impact on MetS components (visceral adiposity, hyperglycemia, low serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypertension) remains largely unknown. In this trial, we aim to assess the effects of combined (aerobic and resistance) exercise on components of MetS, as well as on physical fitness and QOL, in breast cancer survivors soon after completing cancer-related treatments.Methods/design: This study is a prospective randomized controlled trial (RCT) investigating the effects of a 16-week supervised progressive aerobic and resistance exercise training intervention on MetS in 100 breast cancer survivors. Main inclusion criteria are histologically-confirmed breast cancer stage I-III, completion of chemotherapy and/or radiation within 6 months prior to initiation of the study, sedentary, and free from musculoskeletal disorders. The primary endpoint is MetS; secondary endpoints include: muscle strength, shoulder function, cardiorespiratory fitness, body composition, bone mineral density, and QOL. Participants randomized to the Exercise group participate in 3 supervised weekly exercise sessions for 16 weeks. Participants randomized to the Control group are offered the same intervention after the 16-week period of observation. This is the one of few RCTs examining the effects of exercise on MetS in breast cancer survivors. Results will contribute a better understanding of metabolic disease-related effects of resistance and aerobic exercise training and inform intervention programs that will optimally improve physiological and psychosocial health during cancer survivorship, and that are ultimately aimed at improving prognosis.Trial registration: NCT01140282; Registration: June 10, 2010.
    BMC Cancer 04/2014; 14(1):238. DOI:10.1186/1471-2407-14-238 · 3.36 Impact Factor
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    • "or distortion of the breast(s), muscle loss/weakness), in addition to the physiological and psychosocial effects of the treatments for this life-threatening disease (Irwin et al., 2005; Ward et al., 2003). "
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: In the current study, we (a) describe naturally occurring changes in self-presentation processes (i.e., impression motivation, impression construction) and moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) over a period of 6 months among women who were treated for breast cancer; (b) evaluate the associations of cancer-specific factors with self-presentation processes and MVPA; and (c) examine the within- and between-person associations of self-presentation processes with MVPA. Method: For this prospective longitudinal study, women (n = 128; Mage = 55.14 years) completed questionnaires posttreatment for breast cancer (Mtime since treatment = 3.96 months), as well as 3 and 6 months later. Results: Based on the findings of the multilevel analysis, self-presentation processes remained stable over time, whereas MVPA levels changed over time (Blinear = 6.11, SE = 2.44, Bquadratic = -3.41, SE = 1.23). Radiotherapy was related to impression motivation (B = -.40, SE = .19) and impression construction (B = -.45, SE = .15), and chemotherapy was related to impression motivation (B = .31, SE = .15). Impression motivation was associated with MVPA at the between-person level (γ₀₁ = 5.72, SE = 1.22), and impression construction was associated with MVPA at the between- and within-person levels (γ₀₁ = 3.45, SE = 1.49; γ₁₀ = 3.67, SE = 1.66). Conclusions: This study provides insight into the patterns of self-presentation processes and MVPA during early cancer survivorship, as well as the associations between these constructs at the within- and between-person levels. Based on these findings, more research is needed to determine whether self-presentation processes should be conceptualized as state or trait characteristics or as having both components, and extend the self-presentation framework to incorporate additional explanatory variables as this might provide a more complete explanation of MVPA.
    Health Psychology 03/2014; 33:205-213. DOI:10.1037/a0030414 · 3.59 Impact Factor
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