Immunosuppressive properties of flavonoids isolated from Boerhaavia diffusa Linn.
ABSTRACT Plant extracts have been widely evaluated for possible immunomodulatory properties. We have earlier reported that ethanolic extract of Boerhaavia diffusa root, a plant used in Indian traditional medicine, has significant immunomodulatory potential. B. diffusa hexane, chloroform and ethanol extracts, and two pure compounds Bd-I (eupalitin-3-O-beta-D-galactopyranoside) and Bd-II (eupalitin) were evaluated in vitro for their effect on T cell mitogen (phytohemagglutinin; PHA) stimulated proliferation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC), mixed lymphocyte culture, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated nitric oxide production by RAW 264.7, PHA and LPS induced IL-2 and TNF-alpha production, in human PBMCs, superoxide production in neutrophils, human natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity and nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-(kappa)B and AP-1 in PHA stimulated PBMCs. The chloroform and ethanol extracts inhibited PHA stimulated proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells, two-way MLR, NK cell cytotoxicity as well as LPS induced NO production by RAW 264.7; the hexane extract showed no activity. Bd-I purified from the ethanolic extract at equivalent dose, inhibited PHA-stimulated proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells, two-way MLR and NK cell cytotoxicity as well as LPS induced NO production by RAW 264.7 equally or more effectively than the parent ethanolic extract. Bd-I inhibited production of PHA stimulated IL-2 at the protein and mRNA transcript levels and LPS stimulated TNF-alpha production in human PBMCs; it also blocked the activation of DNA binding of nuclear factor-(kappa)B and AP-1, two major transcription factors centrally involved in expression of the IL-2 and IL-2R gene, which are necessary for T cell activation and proliferation. Our results report selective immunosuppressive activity of B. diffusa leaf extracts and that this activity lies in eupalitin-3-O-beta-D-galactopyranoside (Bd-I) isolated and purified from the ethnaolic extract. Thus, Bd-I could be a candidate for development as an immunosuppressive agent.
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ABSTRACT: Aphloia theiformis (Vahl) Benn. is used as ethnical medicine for diverse diseases in the Indian Ocean islands and the East Africa region. This study investigated the potential immunomodulatory effect of the phenolic fraction of A. theiformis leaves and their anti-inflammatory potent. Phe-nolic fraction from the leaves of A. theiformis was obtained by methanol extract, and recovered by an aqueous solution of 5% HCl, then filtered. We investigated the potential immunomod-ulatory effect in rat, by flow cytometer. Anti-inflammatory activity was also investigated in carrageenan-induced paw oedema rat model. Results demonstrated an immunosuppres-sive effect on lymphocyte for all doses administered. However, we noted an interesting immunostimulant effect on monocytes and granulocytes number at high doses. Then, we noted an important anti-inflammatory-like effect for these doses in vivo. This work suggests the eventual use of this plant in the treatment of some inflammatory symptoms and immune dysfunctions. Keywords: Aphloia theiformis (Vahl) Benn. – Immunomodulatory – Anti-inflammatory – Phytochemical screening – Phenolic fraction Caractérisation phytochimique, activités immunomodulatrice et anti-inflammatoire de la fraction phénolique d'Aphloia theiformis (Vahl) Benn., plante utilisée dans la médecine traditionnelle comorienne Résumé : Extrêmement répandu dans les îles de l'océan Indien, Aphloia theiformis est très utilisée contre diverses maladies. Dans cette étude, nous nous sommes penchés sur les possibles effets immunomodulateur et anti-inflammatoire de la fraction phénolique d'Aphloia theiformis. Cette fraction phénolique est obtenue à partir de l'extrait méthanolique des feuilles d'Aph-loia theiformis après récupération par une solution d'HCl à 5 %. L'activité immunomodulatrice a été réalisée par cytomé-trie en flux, et l'activité anti-inflammatoire par le biais du mod-èle d'oedème de la patte induit par la carragénine chez le rat. Pour ce qui est de l'activité immunomodulatrice, les résul-tats ont montré un effet suppressif sur les lymphocytes pour toutes les doses testées. Cependant, pour les doses élevées, on a noté un intéressant effet immunostimulant pour les sous-populations monocytaires et granulocytaires, suggérant ainsi un potentiel effet anti-inflammatoire qui a été démontré in vivo. Ces résultats ouvrent donc la voie à une utilisation potentielle de cette plante dans le traitement des symptômes inflammatoires et certains dysfonctionnements de la réponse immunitaire. Mots clés : Aphloia theiformis (Vahl) Benn. – Effet immunomodulateur – Effet anti-inflammatoire – Criblage phytochimique – Fraction phénoliquePhytotherapie 12/2014; 12(6):354-359.
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ABSTRACT: Rownaq A, Hossain MS (2010) In vitro Direct and Indirect Plantlets Regneration from Nodal Segment of Boerhaavia repens L. Int. J. Sustain. Crop Prod. 5(4), 5-10. An efficient protocol for in vitro propagation of Boerhaavia repens L. was established using nodal segment. The highest direct shoot regeneration from nodal segment was noted (94%) in the MS medium having 2.0 mg/l BAP+0.2 mg/l NAA. The mean number of shoots per culture (12.51) and mean length of shoot per culture (5.10 cm) were also highest in the same medium. Callus induction and plantlet regeneration were observed using different concentrations and combinations of growth regulators. The highest frequency (100%) of organogenic callus was observed in the MS medium containing 1.0 mg/l NAA+1.0 mg/l BAP. Again, the highest (91%) shoot was produced in the MS medium in the combination with 2.0 mg/l BAP+1.5 mg/l Kn+0.5 mg/l NAA was proved to be most suitable in shoot formation from callus. The elongated shoots developed maximum (100%) roots on a half strength MS medium containing 1mg/l IBA. The well rooted plantlets were successfully established in natural condition, where the survival rate of plantlets was 80%.
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ABSTRACT: Ayurveda, the science of life, deals with the holistic view of healthy living. It covers various physiology and pathology of diseases and their therapies. From time immemorial mankind's efforts and ultimate aim have been to seek eternal happiness. And his endeavour has been to overcome and seek appropriate remedies for things that stand in his way. Physical and mental well being is of prime importance towards this end Medical Science while relieving his malady assures him of a healthy life man or living being for that matter is afflicted by grief or disease even since inception. Phytochemical, Pharmacological, experimental and Clinical investigations on various medicinal plants have been conducted by many scientist, researchers etc. It may be seen that the ancient Ayurvedic physicians clearly understood the process of digestion and metabolism. Boerhaavia diffusa (Punarnava) is one of the most famous medicinal plants in the treatment of a large number of human ailments is mentioned in Ayurveda, Charaka Samhita, and Sushrita Samhita. This paper explains the evidence-based information regarding the pharmacological activity of this plant. It has many ethnobotanical uses (the leaves are used as vegetable; the root juice is used to cure asthma, urinary disorders, leukorrhea, rheumatism, and encephalitis), and is medicinally used in the traditional Ayurvedic system.