Immunosuppressive properties of flavonoids isolated from Boerhaavia diffusa Linn.
ABSTRACT Plant extracts have been widely evaluated for possible immunomodulatory properties. We have earlier reported that ethanolic extract of Boerhaavia diffusa root, a plant used in Indian traditional medicine, has significant immunomodulatory potential. B. diffusa hexane, chloroform and ethanol extracts, and two pure compounds Bd-I (eupalitin-3-O-beta-D-galactopyranoside) and Bd-II (eupalitin) were evaluated in vitro for their effect on T cell mitogen (phytohemagglutinin; PHA) stimulated proliferation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC), mixed lymphocyte culture, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated nitric oxide production by RAW 264.7, PHA and LPS induced IL-2 and TNF-alpha production, in human PBMCs, superoxide production in neutrophils, human natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity and nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-(kappa)B and AP-1 in PHA stimulated PBMCs. The chloroform and ethanol extracts inhibited PHA stimulated proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells, two-way MLR, NK cell cytotoxicity as well as LPS induced NO production by RAW 264.7; the hexane extract showed no activity. Bd-I purified from the ethanolic extract at equivalent dose, inhibited PHA-stimulated proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells, two-way MLR and NK cell cytotoxicity as well as LPS induced NO production by RAW 264.7 equally or more effectively than the parent ethanolic extract. Bd-I inhibited production of PHA stimulated IL-2 at the protein and mRNA transcript levels and LPS stimulated TNF-alpha production in human PBMCs; it also blocked the activation of DNA binding of nuclear factor-(kappa)B and AP-1, two major transcription factors centrally involved in expression of the IL-2 and IL-2R gene, which are necessary for T cell activation and proliferation. Our results report selective immunosuppressive activity of B. diffusa leaf extracts and that this activity lies in eupalitin-3-O-beta-D-galactopyranoside (Bd-I) isolated and purified from the ethnaolic extract. Thus, Bd-I could be a candidate for development as an immunosuppressive agent.
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ABSTRACT: Mitochondrial dysfunction plays a critical role in the development of cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. So mitochondria are emerging as one of the important druggable targets in the management of cardiac hypertrophy and other associated complications. In the present study, effects of ethanolic extract of Boerhaavia diffusa (BDE), a green leafy vegetable against mitochondrial dysfunction in angiotensin II (Ang II) induced hypertrophy in H9c2 cardiomyoblasts was evaluated. H9c2 cells challenged with Ang II exhibited pathological hypertrophic responses and mitochondrial dysfunction which was evident from increment in cell volume (49.09±1.13%), protein content (55.17±1.19%), LDH leakage (58.74±1.87%), increased intracellular ROS production (26.25±0.91%), mitochondrial superoxide generation (65.06±2.27%), alteration in mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨm), opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) and mitochondrial swelling. In addition, activities of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes (I-IV), aconitase, NADPH oxidase, thioredoxin reductase, oxygen consumption rate and calcium homeostasis were evaluated. Treatment with BDE significantly prevented the generation of intracellular ROS and mitochondrial superoxide radicals and protected the mitochondria by preventing dissipation of ΔΨm, opening of mPTP, mitochondrial swelling and enhanced the activities of respiratory chain complexes and oxygen consumption rate in H9c2 cells. Activities of aconitase and thioredoxin reductase which was lowered (33.77±0.68% & 45.81±0.71% respectively) due to hypertrophy, were increased in BDE treated cells (P≤0.05). Moreover, BDE also reduced the intracellular calcium overload in Ang II treated cells. Overall results revealed the protective effects of B. diffusa against mitochondrial dysfunction in hypertrophy in H9c2 cells and the present findings may shed new light on the therapeutic potential of B. diffusa in addition to its nutraceutical potentials.PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(4):e96220. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Boerhavia diffusa (BD) is a plant of rasayana category as per ayurvedic claims. It is reported to possess antiaging, disease prevention, and life strengthening activities which hold enormous influence in disease burden and affordability/availability of healthcare in the world. Objective. This paper has been compiled to comment on the studies reported for BD to highlight its chemical and therapeutic potential along with its ethnopharmacological considerations. Methods. In the present paper, a detailed account of chemical constituents and pharmacological activities has been presented. All the findings were correlated with modern pharmacological activities to appraise the value of BD. Results. Chemical analysis of BD gives a wide variety of chemical constituents, namely, rotenoids, flavonoids, xanthones, purine nucleoside, lignans, and steroids. Various ethnopharmacological reports emphasize its role in disorders of reproductive system, gastrointestinal system, respiratory system, urinary system, hepatic system/jaundice, cardiovascular system, and cancer. Conclusions. The studies on the therapeutic activities of BD range from studies on crude extracts to isolated compounds; however some of the studies require sophistication and validated results. BD is a plant of enormous importance in the purview of its chemical and therapeutic properties.BioMed Research International 01/2014; 2014:808302. · 2.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study was undertaken to assess the anti-stress properties of Clerodendron colebrookianum Walp. leaf extract against cold-restraint stress in Swiss albino mice. Three groups of albino mice were employed namely control, cold-restraint stress (3 h/day for 5 days at 4°C) and C. colebrookianum leaf extract + cold-restraint stress. The assessment was done by measuring the white blood cell (WBC) count, differential (neutrophil, eosinophil and basophil) count, blood glucose level, serum alanine amino transferase (ALT) activity, plasma corticosterone level, liver and spleen weight along with the transmission electron microscopic study and the DNA fragmentation assay of liver tissues. There was a significant reduction in the WBC count, eosinophil, basophil level and spleen weight while the level of ALT, neutrophil, blood glucose and plasma corticosterone along with the liver weight was found to increase significantly on stress treatment. The electron microscopic studies of liver tissues in cold-restraint stress group revealed the sign of apoptosis with significant change in the nucleus structure including chromatin condensation and vacuolization as compared to that of the control group. This was further confirmed by the percentage of fragmented DNA of liver tissue in which cold-restraint stress group showed increased DNA fragmentation percentage compared to the control group. Administration of C. colebrookianum leaf extract (100 mg/kg) significantly prevented the cold-restraint stress induced alterations in all the above parameters.Pharmacologyonline 01/2008; 2:742-753. · 0.16 Impact Factor