MMPI vulnerability indicators for schizophrenia and attention deficit disorder: UCLA family study of biological parents of offspring with childhood-onset schizophrenia or ADHD.
ABSTRACT Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) scores were examined for 50 parents of children with an onset of schizophrenia prior to 14 years of age, 153 parents of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and 168 parents of community comparison children. The parents were participants in the UCLA Family Study. The mean scores on all standard MMPI scales were within normal limits for all three groups of participants. Parents of schizophrenia probands were significantly higher on scale Sc than parents of community comparison children. Previous research has shown that scale Sc may be associated with a genetic liability to developing schizophrenia. Thus, scale Sc shows promise as an indicator of a heightened risk for the development of schizophrenia. The parents of the ADHD probands were significantly higher on standard clinical scale Pd than community comparison parents. Mothers of both schizophrenia and ADHD probands shared some personality indicators of stress reactivity. Although this study, like all non-adoptee family studies, cannot disentangle genetic effects on the development of these personality characteristics from environmental effects, we speculate that the emotional distress resulting in higher levels of the MMPI characteristics seen in the patients' mothers reflects the impact of raising a psychiatrically ill offspring.
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ABSTRACT: Objectives: The current study investigated the personality characteristics of parents of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), which is commonly used in clinical medicine. Methods: Participants were 117 parents of children with ADHD (96 boys and 21 girls) and 77 parents of comparison children (50 boys and 27 girls), who completed the Korean version of the MMPI. Results: The MMPI scores of the fathers of ADHD children were significantly higher on the Psychopathic Deviate (Pd), Masculinity-Femininity (Mf), Paranoia (Pa), and Psychasthenia (Pt) scales than the comparison group's were. In addition, the mothers of ADHD children had higher MMPI scores on the traits of Hypochondriasis (Hs), Psychopathic Deviate (Pd), and Schizophrenia (Sc) than the comparisong roup had, but were not significantly higher. Conclusion: The fathers of ADHD children might be antisocial, irresolute, passive, paranoid, and anxious. In addition, mothers of ADHD children might have hypochondriacal, antisocial, and/or psychological confusional traits, but these were not be significantly high. These results suggest that the psychopathology of parents of ADHD children might correlate with their children's ADHD.09/2011; 22(3). DOI:10.5765/jkacap.2011.22.3.149
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ABSTRACT: Genetic and environmental risk factors and gene-environment interactions are linked to higher likelihood of developing schizophrenia in accordance with the neurodevelopmental model of disease; little is known about risk factors and early development in early-onset schizophrenia (EOS) and very early-onset schizophrenia (VEOS). We present a case-control study of a sample of 21 patients with EOS/VEOS and a control group of 21 patients with migraine, recruited from the Child Neuropsychiatry Unit, Department of Neurologic and Psychiatric Science, University of Bari, Italy. The aim was to assess the statistical association between VEOS/EOS and family history for psychiatric disorders, obstetric complications and childhood developmental abnormalities using 2 × 2 tables and a Chi Squared or Fisher test. The results show a statistical association between EOS/VEOS and schizophrenia and related disorders (P = 0.02) and personality disorders (P = 0.003) in relatives, and between EOS/VEOS and developmental abnormalities of early relational skills (P = 0.008) and learning (P = 0.04); there is not a statistically relevant difference between cases and controls (P > 0.05) for any obstetric complications (pre, peri and postpartum). This study confirms the significant role of familial liability but not of obstetric complications in the pathogenesis of VEOS/EOS; the association between childhood developmental abnormalities and EOS/VEOS supports the neurodevelopmental model of disease.BMC Psychiatry 04/2011; 11:60. DOI:10.1186/1471-244X-11-60 · 2.24 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Adult ADHD is characterised by a plethora of comorbid conditions. However, the comorbidity of schizophrenia and ADHD does not seem to be a typical feature and is therefore under-researched. To identify adult patients with schizophrenia and comorbid ADHD and compare their symptomatology with schizophrenic patients without ADHD. Performance in specific neuropsychological tests (set shifting, selective and sustained attention, cognitive performance, and speed of information processing) was determined. Additionally, important demographic data and information about the patients' history such as the number of suicide attempts were gathered. Twenty-seven patients were involved in this study (14 male and 13 female). Fifteen patients were diagnosed with schizophrenia/no ADHD and twelve had both schizophrenia/ADHD. We report here an increase in suicidal behaviour of patients with both schizophrenia and ADHD compared to schizophrenia only. A significant underperformance of the patients with ADHD comorbidity compared to patients with schizophrenia only was also determined. The increased suicidal behaviour in patients with schizophrenia and ADHD suggests the need of further studies on mood regulation and suicidal ideations in these patients.The World Journal of Biological Psychiatry 09/2011; 12 Suppl 1:52-6. DOI:10.3109/15622975.2011.599212 · 4.23 Impact Factor