Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) scores were examined for 50 parents of children with an onset of schizophrenia prior to 14 years of age, 153 parents of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and 168 parents of community comparison children. The parents were participants in the UCLA Family Study. The mean scores on all standard MMPI scales were within normal limits for all three groups of participants. Parents of schizophrenia probands were significantly higher on scale Sc than parents of community comparison children. Previous research has shown that scale Sc may be associated with a genetic liability to developing schizophrenia. Thus, scale Sc shows promise as an indicator of a heightened risk for the development of schizophrenia. The parents of the ADHD probands were significantly higher on standard clinical scale Pd than community comparison parents. Mothers of both schizophrenia and ADHD probands shared some personality indicators of stress reactivity. Although this study, like all non-adoptee family studies, cannot disentangle genetic effects on the development of these personality characteristics from environmental effects, we speculate that the emotional distress resulting in higher levels of the MMPI characteristics seen in the patients' mothers reflects the impact of raising a psychiatrically ill offspring.
"Furthermore, the different psychopathological expression between first and second degree relatives suggests that we should widen our knowledge about the personality of EOS/VEOS parents. As matter of fact psychopathological traits such as suspiciousness, withdrawal, social avoidance, introversion, diffidence, flattened affectivity are likely to account for the phenotypical expression relevant to familial vulnerability to schizophrenia, characterized by both genetic and environmental factors [35,36]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genetic and environmental risk factors and gene-environment interactions are linked to higher likelihood of developing schizophrenia in accordance with the neurodevelopmental model of disease; little is known about risk factors and early development in early-onset schizophrenia (EOS) and very early-onset schizophrenia (VEOS).
We present a case-control study of a sample of 21 patients with EOS/VEOS and a control group of 21 patients with migraine, recruited from the Child Neuropsychiatry Unit, Department of Neurologic and Psychiatric Science, University of Bari, Italy. The aim was to assess the statistical association between VEOS/EOS and family history for psychiatric disorders, obstetric complications and childhood developmental abnormalities using 2 × 2 tables and a Chi Squared or Fisher test.
The results show a statistical association between EOS/VEOS and schizophrenia and related disorders (P = 0.02) and personality disorders (P = 0.003) in relatives, and between EOS/VEOS and developmental abnormalities of early relational skills (P = 0.008) and learning (P = 0.04); there is not a statistically relevant difference between cases and controls (P > 0.05) for any obstetric complications (pre, peri and postpartum).
This study confirms the significant role of familial liability but not of obstetric complications in the pathogenesis of VEOS/EOS; the association between childhood developmental abnormalities and EOS/VEOS supports the neurodevelopmental model of disease.
"These findings suggest that heightened variability in responses over time may provide useful information. Of note, some studies have suggested a link between childhood-onset ADHD and schizophrenia but the nature of this remains unclear (Asarnow et al., 2002; Subotnik et al., 2005). That said, adults with ADHD show a range of psychosocial deficits, which partially overlap with deficits seen in schizophrenia. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Deficits in attention are a stable feature of schizophrenia and likely to interfere with social function. In this study, we explored whether 2 types of attentional dysfunction, increasingly variable and declining reaction times over the course of a continuous performance task, were linked to psychosocial deficits. Participants were 102 adults with schizophrenia spectrum disorders in ongoing outpatient treatment. Concurrent assessments included the Conners' Continuous Performance Test II, the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems, and the Ways of Coping Questionnaire. Analysis of covariance controlling for global performance on the Continuous Performance test suggested that participants with a pattern of increasingly variable performance on the task (n = 14) reported being more domineering and taken advantage of socially, than those whose performance was less variable (n = 88). No differences were found between groups for assessments of coping or between participants who showed a declining vs non-declining reaction time.
The Journal of nervous and mental disease 02/2010; 198(2):154-8. DOI:10.1097/NMD.0b013e3181cc5215 · 1.69 Impact Factor
"Elevations on all these scales or some of them have been observed in many studies which used the MMPI as an instrument for measuring response to stress in clinical and non-clinical populations (Alessi et al. 2001; Franklin et al. 2002; Scheibe et al. 2001; Stilley et al. 1997). Interestingly, the recent study of MMPI profiles in parents of children with schizophrenia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) reported elevations on neurotic triad scales in both groups, while the elevation on scale Sc was seen only in parents of schizophrenics (Subotnik et al. 2005 "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Caregiving of a family member with psychotic disorder is considered among the most significant stressors and relatives of a sufferer experienced psychological and physical burden that may be the cause of neurotic states. There is growing evidence that sensitivity of individuals to depressogenic effects of stressful factor is moderated by genetic variants of serotonin transporter (SERT) and brain-derived neurotrophic factors (BDNF). We examined the association of the 5-HTTLPR SERT and Val66Met BDNF polymorphisms with signs of depression and anxiety measured with the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) in 235 unaffected parents of patients with major psychosis and 102 age-matched controls. A significant effect of the SERT-BDNF interaction on Depression and Psychasthenia scales was found in the group of parents, but not in the control group. Carriers of the Val/Val x SS variant scored higher as compared to other allelic combinations. The results obtained revealed that the SERT-BDNF interactions might moderate the level of anxiety and depression caused by caregiving status in parents of psychotic patients.
The Spanish Journal of Psychology 11/2009; 12(2):696-706. DOI:10.1017/S1138741600002067 · 0.74 Impact Factor
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