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Cai, D. et al. Local and systemic insulin resistance resulting from hepatic activation of IKK- and NF-B. Nat. Med. 11, 183-190

Joslin Diabetes Center & Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, One Joslin Place, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA.
Nature Medicine (Impact Factor: 28.05). 03/2005; 11(2):183-90. DOI: 10.1038/nm1166
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT We show that NF-kappaB and transcriptional targets are activated in liver by obesity and high-fat diet (HFD). We have matched this state of chronic, subacute 'inflammation' by low-level activation of NF-kappaB in the liver of transgenic mice, designated LIKK, by selectively expressing constitutively active IKK-b in hepatocytes. These mice exhibit a type 2 diabetes phenotype, characterized by hyperglycemia, profound hepatic insulin resistance, and moderate systemic insulin resistance, including effects in muscle. The hepatic production of proinflammatory cytokines, including IL-6, IL-1beta and TNF-alpha, was increased in LIKK mice to a similar extent as induced by HFD in in wild-type mice. Parallel increases were observed in cytokine signaling in liver and mucscle of LIKK mice. Insulin resistance was improved by systemic neutralization of IL-6 or salicylate inhibition of IKK-beta. Hepatic expression of the IkappaBalpha superrepressor (LISR) reversed the phenotype of both LIKK mice and wild-type mice fed an HFD. These findings indicate that lipid accumulation in the liver leads to subacute hepatic 'inflammation' through NF-kappaB activation and downstream cytokine production. This causes insulin resistance both locally in liver and systemically.

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