Small volume resuscitation with HyperHaes improves pericontusional perfusion and reduces lesion volume following controlled cortical impact injury in rats

Department of Neurosurgery, Charité, Virchow Medical Center, Humboldt University Berlin, Germany.
Journal of Neurotrauma (Impact Factor: 3.71). 01/2005; 21(12):1737-46. DOI: 10.1089/neu.2004.21.1737
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The hyperosmolar and hyperoncotic properties of HyperHaes (HHES) might improve impaired posttraumatic cerebral perfusion. Possible beneficial effects on pericontusional perfusion, brain edema, and contusion volume were investigated in rats subjected to controlled cortical impact (CCI). Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 60) anesthetized with isoflurane were subjected to a left temporoparietal CCI. Thereafter, rats were randomized to receive HHES (10% hydroxyethylstarch, 7.5% NaCl) or physiological saline solution (4 mL/kg body weight) intravenously. Mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) and intracranial pressure (ICP) were determined before and following CCI, after drug administration and 24 h later. Regional pericontusional cortical perfusion was determined by scanning laser Doppler flowmetry before CCI, and 30 min, 4 and 24 h after injury. At 24 h brain swelling and water content were measured gravimetrically. At 7 days, cortical contusion volume was determined planimetrically. MABP was not influenced by HHES. ICP was significantly decreased immediately after HHES infusion (5.7 +/- 0.4 vs. 7.1 +/- 1.0 mm Hg; p < 0.05). Pericontusional cortical perfusion was significantly decreased by 44% compared to pre-injury levels (p < 0.05). HHES significantly improved cortical perfusion at 4 h after CCI, approaching baseline values (85 +/- 12%). While increased posttraumatic brain edema was not reduced by HHES at 24 h, cortical contusion volume was significantly decreased in the HHES-treated rats at 7 days after CCI (23.4 +/- 3.5 vs. 39.6 +/- 6.2 mm3; p < 0.05). Intravaneous administration of HHES within 15 min after CCI has a neuroprotective potential, as it significantly attenuated impaired pericontusional perfusion and markedly reduced the extent of induced structural damage.

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Available from: Martin Misch, Sep 24, 2014
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    • "Brain edema is the main cause of intracranial hypertension in patients with intracranial hemorrhage. In turn, intracranial hypertension aggravates brain edema by altering cerebral perfusion and cerebral venous blood outflow [1] [2] [3]. Therefore intracranial pressure (ICP) correction is one of the main goals of intensive care in patients with intracranial hemorrhage. "
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    ABSTRACT: Effective methods for treating cerebral edema have recently become a matter of both extensive research and significant debate within the neurosurgery and trauma surgery communities. The pathophysiologic progression and outcome of different forms of cerebral edema associated with traumatic brain injury have yet to be fully elucidated. There are heterogeneous factors influencing the onset and progress of post-traumatic cerebral edema, including the magnitude and type of head injury, age, co-morbid conditions of the patient, the critical window for therapeutic intervention and the presence of secondary insults including hypoxia, hypotension, hypo/hyperthermia, degree of raised intracranial pressure (ICP), and disruption of blood brain barrier (BBB) integrity. Although numerous studies have been designed to improve our understanding of the etiology of post-traumatic cerebral edema, therapeutic interventions have traditionally been focused on minimizing secondary insults especially raised ICP and improving cerebral perfusion pressure. More recently, fluid resuscitation strategies using hyperosmolar agents such as pentastarch and hypertonic saline (HS) have achieved some success. HS treatment is of particular interest due to its apparent advantageous action over other types of hyper-osmotic solutions in both clinical and laboratory studies. In this review, we provide a summary of recent literature concerning the pathogenesis and mechanisms involved in the various types of cerebral edema, and the possible mechanisms of action of HS for the treatment cerebral edema.
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