Proteinuria reduction and progression to renal failure in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and overt nephropathy.
ABSTRACT Little is known of the effects of blood pressure reduction by specific classes of antihypertensive drugs on the association between proteinuria reduction and progression of kidney insufficiency and development of end-stage kidney disease in patients with overt diabetic nephropathy in type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Associations between baseline proteinuria and proteinuria reduction by either irbesartan, amlodipine, or control for similar decrements in blood pressure and the cumulative incidence of renal end points were examined using the Kaplan-Meier method in patients enrolled in the Irbesartan Diabetic Nephropathy Trial.
Risk for kidney failure doubled for each doubling of baseline proteinuria level (hazard ratio, 2.04; 95% confidence interval, 1.87 to 2.22; P < 0.001). For each halving of proteinuria level between baseline and 12 months with treatment, risk for kidney failure was reduced by more than half (hazard ratio, 0.44; 95% confidence interval, 0.40 to 0.49; P < 0.001). For the same proportional change in proteinuria, the reduction in risk for kidney failure was significantly greater for irbesartan compared with amlodipine ( P = 0.048), but not control ( P = 0.245). Proteinuria reduction in the first 12 months of therapy with irbesartan is associated with 36% of the total renoprotective effect observed.
Baseline proteinuria is an important risk factor for kidney failure and provides a means to identify patients at greatest risk. Halving proteinuria halves the kidney risk. Proteinuria reduction using an angiotensin receptor-blocking agent, such as irbesartan, should be regarded as an important therapeutic goal in renoprotective strategies.
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ABSTRACT: As combinations of drugs from different classes that have synergistic or additive effect and properties to cancel out each others' untoward hemodynamic and metabolic effects become more and more widely used, their use as first-line therapy for the treatment of newly diagnosed hypertensive patients is growing in popularity as well. The possibility to begin therapy with a fixed 2-drug combination may be preferable to starting with monotherapy followed by upward titration and addition of other agents. More and more combinations are coming out on the market and proving their effectiveness in randomized controlled trials and in large multicenter studies. One suggestion is the "polypill," a fixed combination of multiple agents that address various components of the metabolic syndrome and coexisting common risk factors in both high-risk patients with conditions requiring polypharmacy, and in healthy asymptomatic individuals.Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases 05/2006; 48(6):416-25. DOI:10.1016/j.pcad.2006.03.003 · 2.44 Impact Factor
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