NIH pre-clinical screening program: overview and current status
ABSTRACT The increase in the number of cases of Mycobacterium tuberculosis around the world has lead to a greater need for a more efficacious vaccine than the currently used M. bovis BCG. Despite the relative success of this attenuated vaccine there are multiple examples where alternative strategies are desperately needed. In 1996, the National Institutes of Health published a request calling for applications to test newly developed vaccines against tuberculosis. The current screening program at Colorado State University has tested a wide range of novel vaccine candidates.
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ABSTRACT: Exosomes were originally described as small vesicles released from reticulocytes during the maturation process. These 40-200 nm microvesicles were hypothesized to be a mechanism for the removal of membrane proteins in lieu of intracellular degradation by Harding et al. (1984) and Johnstone et al. (1987) [1,2]. Exosomes can be distinguished from other extracellular vesicles (ectosomes, apoptotic blebs) based on their size and the protein indicators intercalated in their membrane (also, linking their derivation from the endocytic pathway) by Simpson (2012) . The exact role which exosomes play in cell-to-cell communication and immune modulation is a topic of intense study. However, the focus of most reports has been directed towards discovering aberrations in exosomal protein and RNA content linked to disease onset and progression, and also primarily related to cancer. Nonetheless, exosomes are now documented to be released from a wide variety of cell types by Mathivanan et al. (2012), Simpson et al. (2012) and Kalra et al. (2012) [4-6] and have been isolated from all bodily fluids; thus, exosomes are an excellent source of biomarkers. Here we describe the discoveries related to the role exosomes play in tuberculosis disease, as well as translational work in vaccine development and how circulation of these dynamic vesicles can be harnessed for diagnostic purposes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.Tuberculosis 11/2014; 95(1). DOI:10.1016/j.tube.2014.10.010 · 3.50 Impact Factor
Conference Paper: A 6 MHz-130 MHz DLL with a fixed latency of one clock cycle delay[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In this paper, a wide range delay-locked loop (DLL) with a fixed latency of one clock cycle is proposed. Using the phase selection circuit and the start-controlled circuit enlarges the operating frequency range of this DLL and eliminates the harmonic locking problems. The operating frequency range of the DLL can be from 1/T<sub>Dmin</sub> to 1/(N×T<sub>Dmax</sub>), where T<sub>Dmin</sub> and T<sub>Dmax</sub> are the minimum and maximum delay of a delay cell, respectively, and N is the number of delay cells used in the delay line theoretically. Fabricated in a 0.35 μm 1P3M standard CMOS process, the DLL occupies an active area of 880 μm×515 μm and consumes a maximum power of 132 mW at 130 MHz. The measurement results show that the operating frequency range is from 6 MHz to 130 MHz and the latency is just one clock cycle. From the entire operating frequency range, the maximum r.m.s. jitter would not exceed 25 ps.Custom Integrated Circuits Conference, 2002. Proceedings of the IEEE 2002; 02/2002