Standard regression-based methods for measuring recovery after sport-related concussion.

Neuroscience Center, Waukesha Memorial Hospital, Waukesha, WI 53188, USA.
Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society (Impact Factor: 3.01). 02/2005; 11(1):58-69. DOI: 10.1017/S1355617705050083
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Clinical decision making about an athlete's return to competition after concussion is hampered by a lack of systematic methods to measure recovery. We applied standard regression-based methods to statistically measure individual rates of impairment at several time points after concussion in college football players. Postconcussive symptoms, cognitive functioning, and balance were assessed in 94 players with concussion (based on American Academy of Neurology Criteria) and 56 noninjured controls during preseason baseline testing, and immediately, 3 hr, and 1, 2, 3, 5, and 7 days postinjury. Ninety-five percent of injured players exhibited acute concussion symptoms and impairment on cognitive or balance testing immediately after injury, which diminished to 4% who reported elevated symptoms on postinjury day 7. In addition, a small but clinically significant percentage of players who reported being symptom free by day 2 continued to be classified as impaired on the basis of objective balance and cognitive testing. These data suggest that neuropsychological testing may be of incremental utility to subjective symptom checklists in identifying the residual effects of sport-related concussion. The implementation of neuropsychological testing to detect subtle cognitive impairment is most useful once postconcussive symptoms have resolved. This management model is also supported by practical and other methodological considerations.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Concussion diagnosis and management is made through the clinical exam using assessment tools that include self-report symptomatology, postural control, and cognitive evaluations. The specific timing of concussion resolution varies between individuals. However, despite a lack of research in concussion recovery, it is widely accepted that the majority of young adults will recover in 7-10 days, with youth athletes taking longer. The purpose of this review is to directly compare the recovery duration among high school and collegiate athletes on symptom reports and cognitive assessments following concussion. Data were collected from a literature search comprising high school or college athletes only. This included studies (n = 6) that reported symptom or cognitive performance recovery to the exact day. High school athletes self-reported symptom recovery at 15 days compared with 6 days in collegiate athletes. Both college and high school athletes showed cognitive recovery at similar rates of 5 and 7 days. This review only included articles that were directly related to concussed high school or college athletes. Additionally, athletes in the high school and college setting typically receive a battery of neurocognitive tests that may not be as sensitive or as comprehensive as a full neuropsychological exam. The review finds that neurocognitive recovery rates are similar among high school and college athletes, while symptom reporting shows longer recovery time points in high school than in college. An individualized and stepwise concussion management plan is important for proper concussion recovery regardless of age.
    03/2015; DOI:10.1007/s40279-015-0325-8
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Concussion, particularly in relation to sports and combat activities, is increasingly recognized as a potential cause of both short- and long-term neurologic sequelae. This review will focus on the neuro-ophthalmologic findings associated with concussion, the current tests for concussion, and the potential for visual performance measures to improve our detection and assessment of concussions. A PubMed search using the specific key words "concussion," "mild traumatic brain injury," "neuro-ophthalmological findings," and "diagnostic and management tests" was performed. An emphasis was placed on articles published during the past 5 years, but additional articles referenced within recent publications were obtained. Concussion is frequently associated with abnormalities of saccades, pursuit eye movements, convergence, accommodation, and the vestibular-ocular reflex. Current sideline testing for athletes includes the Sports Concussion Assessment Tool, Third Edition (SCAT3) incorporates cognitive and balance testing. The King-Devick (K-D) test is a rapid visual performance measures that can be used on sidelines by nonmedical personnel, including parents of youth athletes. The K-D test complements components of the SCAT3 and improves the detection of concussions. Other vision-based tools for diagnosing and for managing concussion include eye movement tracking devices, pupillary assessment, computerized testing, imaging modalities, and eletrophysiologic testing. Many of the imaging modalities and electrophysiological studies have been combined with vision-based tests. Concusssion is associated with many neuro-ophthalmologic signs and symptoms. Visual performance measures enhance the detection and management of concussion, and future studies are under way to further incorporate vision-based testing into sideline diagnosis and long-term clinical assessments.
    Journal of neuro-ophthalmology: the official journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society 03/2015; 35(1):73-81. DOI:10.1097/WNO.0000000000000223 · 1.81 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Ecological Psychology 02/2015; 27(1):26-42. DOI:10.1080/10407413.2015.991669 · 1.19 Impact Factor