Article

Women, trauma, and HIV: An overview

Neuropsychiatric Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, USA.
AIDS and Behavior (Impact Factor: 3.49). 01/2005; 8(4):401-3. DOI: 10.1007/s10461-004-7324-3
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Available from: Hector Myers, Apr 07, 2015
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    • "Although the estimate of violence is high, most sources believe the prevalence of violence against women and children is underestimated. Multiple studies have demonstrated that a history of child sexual assault or rape is linked with HIV risk (Clum et al., 2011; Paul, Catania, Pollack, & Stall, 1999; Wilson & Widom, 2011; Wyatt, Meyers, & Loeb, 2004). A meta-analysis across studies reveals an association between an experience of sexual violence (an inherently social phenomenon) and HIV risk behaviors in women (Arriola et al., 2005). "
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    ABSTRACT: Successes in HIV prevention efforts in the U.S. have resulted in drastic reductions in the number of new infections in the U.S. among white gay men and injection drug users, a stabilization in overall annual rates of new HIV infections, and near eradication of mother-to child transmission of HIV. Despite this remarkable progress, the proportion of AIDS cases in women has slowly, quietly, and steadily increased from 7% in 1985 to 25% in 2008. The fact the prevention efforts have not reduced HIV spread among women suggests that targeting the individual behaviors of women to prevent HIV acquisition is not a sufficiently effective public health strategy. Interventions that more broadly address the needs of women and their families, and address the contextual factors in which HIV risk occurs are more likely to lead to measurable and sustainable progress. Over the past 30 years, we have seen the U.S. HIV epidemic in women become similar to patterns of HIV risk among women in the developing world. In 2009, 85% of women who acquired HIV became infected through sex with a man and the majority (83%) of them were non-white women. Efforts to understand these immense disparities and create gender-responsive strategies must be a priority within our National HIV/AIDS Strategy.
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    • "The wide discrepancy between the economic classes, which often runs along racial and gender lines, affects the way HIV impacts women's lives. " Economic, relationship, lifestyle, and immigration factors, along with substance abuse and risky relationships increase risk for HIV transmission and disease progression " (Wyatt, et al., 2004, 401). It is not possible to solely focus on women and HIV without acknowledging the myriad of other forces affecting their lives today. "
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    ABSTRACT: Interventions to prevent intimate partner violence (IPV), including among those at risk for or living with HIV/AIDS, are needed. In 2001, screening persons who test positive for HIV for risk of IPV was required in New York State, launching the first large-scale program to screen for IPV risk in conjunction with HIV counseling and testing (HCT). Written surveys of counselors, physicians, and agency supervisors explored attitudes, practices, knowledge, and training needs surrounding screening for risk of IPV during HCT. Most HCT providers were aware of screening requirements, but practice varied. Counselors were more likely to screen than were physicians and asked more screening questions. Despite guidelines, screening was generally not standardized and sporadic. IPV screening in conjunction with HCT is possible. Building capacity and commitment of local HCT providers through provision of training and by fostering partnerships with public health partner services staff can help overcome identified barriers to preventing IPV in a high-risk population.
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