Influence of diabetes and bilateral internal thoracic artery grafts on long-term outcome for multivessel coronary artery bypass grafting
ABSTRACT Diabetes mellitus is a major independent risk factor for morbidity and mortality after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). The aim of this study was to assess the effect of bilateral (B) internal thoracic artery grafting (ITA) in diabetic patients with multivessel CABG.
Between 1985 and 1995, 4382 patients underwent primary isolated multivessel CABG with ITA grafting and concomitant saphenous vein grafting (SVG). Outcome of diabetic and nondiabetic patients undergoing single (S) ITA+SVG (n=419 and 2079) and BITA+SVG (n=214 and 1594) grafting was obtained at a mean follow-up of 11+/-3 years.
Diabetic patients were older, included more women, and had more obesity, hypertension and peripheral vascular disease than nondiabetic patients. Deep sternal wound infection rate was 1.9% for diabetic patients vs 1.2% for nondiabetic patients (P=0.2) and 30-day mortality was 1.7 vs 1.8% (P=0.9). Cox regression analysis with interaction term and propensity scoring showed that BITA grafting decreased the risk of death (Hazard Ratio=0.72 [0.57-0.91, 95%CI]) and coronary reoperation (HR=0.38 [0.19-0.77]) in both diabetic and nondiabetic patients, with no significant interaction noted. BITA grafting decreased the risk of myocardial infarction at long-term follow-up in nondiabetic patients (HR=0.72 [0.60-0.86]) but not in diabetic patients. Ten-year freedom rate from myocardial infarction in diabetic patients was 80 and 76% for SITA and BITA grafting patients, respectively. However, survival following myocardial infarction was better for patients who underwent BITA grafting, in both diabetic and nondiabetic subgroups.
BITA+SVG grafting in diabetic patients improves survival and decrease coronary reoperation compared with SITA+SVG at long-term follow-up. Survival following myocardial infarction is improved with BITA grafting.
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ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: To evaluate early outcomes of bilateral internal mammary artery (BIMA) compared with single IMA (SIMA) in patients who underwent isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). METHODS: Patients who received isolated CABG with SIMA or BIMA were retrospectively reviewed using the Japan Adult Cardiovascular Surgery Database from 210 institutions for 2008 and 2009. We performed a one-to-one matched analysis on the basis of estimated propensity scores for patients receiving either SIMA or BIMA and obtained two cohorts with 3851 patients in each group balanced for baseline characteristics out of 8136 SIMA and 4093 BIMA patients. We compared procedures actually performed, early outcomes including 30-day operative mortality and details of postoperative complications between the groups using Pearson's chi-square test, with P< 0.05 being statistically significant. RESULTS: Preoperative profiles in both groups included 20% females and 50% diabetes mellitus patients with a mean age of 67 years. Off-pump CABG was similar in both groups, being performed 75% of the time, with the mean number of anastomosis being 3.1 and 3.4 in the SIMA and BIMA groups, respectively (P< 0.0001). Thirty-day operative mortality was 1.2% in both groups, and the overall incidence of postoperative complications also was similar, although deep sternal infection was more frequent with BIMA (1.3 of SIMA and 2.3% of BIMA patients; P= 0.0001), while prolonged ventilation and renal failure were more frequent with SIMA (P< 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The use of BIMA did not affect either short-term survival as postoperative mortality was low in both groups, or overall morbidity despite higher incidence of deep sternal infection.European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery: official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery 03/2013; DOI:10.1093/ejcts/ezt157 · 2.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: b A best evidence topic in cardiac surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was whether bilateral internal thoracic artery (BITA) coronary bypass increases the risk for mediastinitis. Using the reported search 140 papers were identified. Twenty-four papers represented the best evidence on the subject and the author, journal, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes, results and study comments and weaknesses were tabulated. In general, BITA grafting carries a 2.5- to 5-fold higher risk for mediastinitis after CABG. This risk is about 1.3-4.7% in non-diabetic patients compared to 0.2-1.2% for single internal thoracic artery (SITA) grafting. For diabetic patients with BITA grafting the risk of mediastinitis is significantly increased and can be as high as )10% in some series. However, for patients who undergo BITA harvest using skeletonization the risk is significantly lower and may be similar to patients receiving SITA graft only at around 0.4-2.6%. BITA grafting can be performed with acceptable risk in all patients including higher risk patients such as diabetics, in whom skeletonization of the internal thoracic arteries should be strongly considered rather than pedicled harvest. 2007 Published by European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.
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ABSTRACT: Despite of incessant progresses in management and treatment of surgical patients following cardiac surgery, mediastinitis remains a grave complication. Even treated, mortality is about 20 to 50 %. Its management is associated with a very important morbidity, necessitating a long and painful treatment, as for the patient as for the medical staff. It must be undertaken in a surgical department but consolidated by a serious medical support associating intensive care, antibiotherapy,and hyper nutrition. Differents technical procedures using muscular grafts and VAC may be applied with encourageous progresses, having hoped excellent long term results.