Imaging of HER2/neu-positive BT-474 human breast cancer xenografts in athymic mice using (111)In-trastuzumab (Herceptin) Fab fragments.
ABSTRACT Trastuzumab (Herceptin) Fab were prepared by digestion of intact IgG with immobilized papain, derivatized with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) and radiolabeled with (111)In. The dissociation constant (Kd) for binding of Fab to HER2/neu-positive SK-BR-3 human breast cancer cells was two- to threefold higher than for intact IgG (14-36 vs. 8-14 nM). The binding affinity was not significantly decreased after DTPA derivatization (Kd=47 nM). (111)In-trastuzumab Fab localized specifically in HER2/neu-positive BT-474 human breast cancer xenografts in athymic mice with tumor uptake of 7.8+/-0.7% injected dose (ID)/g and tumor/blood ratio of 25.2+/-1.6 at 72 h postinjection compared with 2.7+/-0.7% ID/g and 7.0+/-0.9 for (111)In-HuM195 anti-CD33 Fab (significantly different, P<.001). Small (3-5 mm in diameter) BT-474 tumors were imaged with (111)In-trastuzumab Fab as early as 24 h postinjection.
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ABSTRACT: Colorectal cancer is a serious complication associated with inflammatory bowel disease, often indistinguishable by screening with conventional FDG PET probes. We have developed an alternative EGFR-targeted PET imaging probe that may be used to overcome this difficulty, and successfully assessed its utility for neoplastic lesion detection in preclinical models. Cetuximab F(ab')2 fragments were enzymatically generated, purified, and DOTA-conjugated. Radiolabeling was performed with (67)Ga for cell based studies and (64)Cu for in vivo imaging. Competitive binding studies were performed on CT26 cells to assess affinity (KD) and receptors per cell (Bmax). In vivo imaging using the EGFR targeted PET probe and (18)F FDG was performed on CT26 tumor bearing mice in both control and dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) induced colitis settings. Spontaneous adenomas in genetically engineered mouse (GEM) models of colon cancer were additionally imaged. The EGFR imaging agent was generated with high purity (> 98%), with a labeling efficiency of 60 ± 5% and ≥99% radiochemical purity. The KD was 6.6 ± 0.7 nM and the Bmax for CT26 cells was 3.3 ± 0.1 × 10(6) receptors/cell. Target to background ratios (TBR) for CT26 tumors compared to colonic uptake demonstrated high values for both (18)F-FDG (3.95 ± 0.13) and the developed (64)Cu-DOTA-cetuximab-F(ab')2 probe (4.42 ± 0.11) in control mice. The TBR for the EGFR targeted probe remained high (3.78 ± 0.06) in the setting of colitis, while for (18)F FDG, this was markedly reduced (1.54 ± 0.08). Assessment of the EGFR targeted probe in the GEM models demonstrated a correlation between radiotracer uptake in spontaneous colonic lesions and the EGFR staining level ex vivo. A clinically translatable PET imaging probe was successfully developed to assess EGFR. The imaging agent can detect colonic tumors with a high TBR for detection of in situ lesions in the setting of colitis, and opens the possibility for a new approach for screening high-risk patients.Theranostics 01/2014; 4(9):893-903. · 7.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of process shear stressors on the stability of a model monoclonal antibody, trastuzumab. Trastuzumab, at concentrations of 0.4-4.0 mg/mL, was subjected to sonication, freeze-thaw, lyophilisation, spray drying and was encapsulated into micro- and nanoparticles. The stressed samples were analysed for structural integrity by gel electrophoresis, SDS-PAGE, and size exclusion chromatography (SEC), while the conformational integrity was analysed by circular dichroism (CD). Biological activity of the stressed trastuzumab was investigated by measuring the inhibition of cell proliferation of HER-2 expressing cell lines. Results show that trastuzumab was resistant to the process shear stresses applied and to microencapsulation processes. At the lowest concentration of 0.4 mg/mL, a low percent ( 0.05). The results of this study conclude that trastuzumab may be resistant to various processing stresses. These findings have important implications with respect to pharmaceutical processing of monoclonal antibodies.Pharmaceutics 01/2011; 3(3):510-524.
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ABSTRACT: Personalized medicine is at the forefront of cancer diagnosis and therapy. Molecularly targeted therapies such as trastuzumab and tamoxifen have enhanced prognosis of patients with cancers expressing ERBB2 and the estrogen receptor, respectively. One obstacle to targeted therapy is the development of resistance. A targeted peptide that could distinguish resistance-susceptible cancer would aid in treatment. BT-474 human breast cancer cells can be resistant to both tamoxifen and trastuzumab, and may serve as a model for malignancies in which targeted therapy may not work. Bacteriophage (phage) display is a combinatorial technology that has been used to isolate peptides that target a specific cancer subtype. It was hypothesized that in vivo phage display could be used to select a peptide for SPECT imaging of BT-474 human breast cancer xenografts. A phage library displaying random 15 amino acid peptides was subjected to four rounds of selection, after which 14 clones were analyzed for BT-474 binding and specificity. One phage clone, 51, demonstrated superior binding and specificity, and the displayed peptide was synthesized for in vitro characterization. Peptide 51 bound specifically to BT-474 cells with an EC50 = 2.33 µM and was synthesized as a DOTA-conjugated peptide and radiolabeled with (111)In for in vitro and in vivo analysis. The radiolabeled peptide exhibited an IC50 = 16.1 nM to BT-474 cells and its biodistribution and SPECT imaging in BT-474 xenografted mice was analyzed. Although tumor uptake was moderate at 0.11% ID/g, SPECT imaging revealed a distinct tumor vasculature binding pattern. It was discovered that peptide 51 had an identical 5 amino acid N-terminal sequence to a peptide, V1, which bound to Nrp1, a tumor vasculature protein. Peptide 51 and V1 were examined for binding to target cells, and 51 bound both target and endothelial cells, while V1 only bound endothelial cells. Truncated versions of 51 did not bind BT-474 cells, demonstrating that the targeting ability of 51 was independent of the homologous V1 sequence. These results demonstrate that in vivo phage display can effectively identify a peptide that specifically targets a breast cancer cell line that is susceptible to targeted therapy resistance.American Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging 01/2014; 4(5):435-47. · 3.25 Impact Factor