Prevalence of nosocomial infection and antibiotic use at a university medical center in Malaysia.
ABSTRACT Most reports of nosocomial infection (NI) prevalence have come from developed countries with established infection control programs. In developing countries, infection control is often not as well established due to lack of staff and resources. We examined the rate of NI in our institution.
A point-prevalence study of NI and antibiotic prescribing was conducted. On July 16 and 17, 2001, all inpatients were surveyed for NI, risk factors, pathogens isolated, and antibiotics prescribed and their indication. NIs were diagnosed according to CDC criteria. Cost of antibiotic acquisition was calculated by treatment indication.
Tertiary-care referral center in Malaysia.
All inpatients during the time of the study.
Five hundred thirty-eight patients were surveyed. Seventy-five had 103 NIs for a prevalence of 13.9%. The most common NIs were urinary tract infections (12.2%), pneumonia (21.4%), laboratory-confirmed bloodstream infections (12.2%), deep surgical wound infections (11.2%), and clinical sepsis (22.4%). Pseudomonas aeruginosa, MRSA, and MSSA were the most common pathogens. Two hundred thirty-seven patients were taking 347 courses of antibiotics, for an overall prevalence of antibiotic use of 44%. NI treatment accounted for 36% of antibiotic courses prescribed but 47% of antibiotic cost. Cost of antibiotic acquisition for NI treatment was estimated to be approximately 2 million per year (Malaysian dollars).
Whereas the rate of NI is relatively high at our center compared with rates from previous reports, antibiotic use is among the highest reported in any study of this kind. Further research into this high rate of antibiotic use is urgently required.
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ABSTRACT: Hands of Health Care Personnel (HCP) are one of the most common vehicles for the transmission of infection. Microorganisms can survive well on the hands of HCP for a certain duration. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to bring awareness to HCP that their hands can actually be contaminated with many microorganisms. These microbes on the hands of HCP can potentially infect their patients if they do not comply with the proper hand hygiene practice. This cross-sectional study was conducted at a randomly selected Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and general ward in a hospital. Twenty five HCP from each ward were randomly selected and their hands were imprinted on blood culture plates. Microorganism growth were quantified and identified. Data were analyzed and presented as descriptive analysis. One hundred blood agar plates were processed and analyzed. Majority (71%) of the samples had more than 50 colony-forming units (CFU) and only 17% of the samples had less than 25 CFU. Microorganisms identified include Staphylococcus spp., Acinetobacter spp., Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas spp., Moraxella, Delftiaacidovorans and fungi. All isolated microorganisms were antibiotic sensitive strain. This study showed that the hands of HCP were contaminated with many microorganisms. Therefore, it is imperative that HCP must practice proper hand hygiene when taking care of their patients in the wards.Tropical biomedicine 09/2014; 31(3):534-539. · 0.82 Impact Factor
- Infection Control - Updates, 02/2012; , ISBN: 978-953-51-0055-3
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ABSTRACT: Nosocomial blood stream infection (or nosocomial bacteremia) is a common problem in hospitals worldwide, including Malaysia. A three-year prospective cohort study (October 2003-March 2007) of the incidences, risk factors, and patterns of the microorganisms causing bacteremia was conducted using a validated surveillance form in three intensive care units (ICUs) in Malaysia. Center for Disease Control criteria were used to diagnose bacteremia. Patients were monitored from admission until the end point of study, which was the first detection of bacteremia in the blood in each patient. The frequency of occurrence of bacteremia with clinical symptoms was 10.7% (n=23). Bacteremia was observed to occur within a mean length of stay of 10 days in ICU. The rate of device-related infection was 10.4% per device utilization days with a device utilization rate of 95.9%/1000 patient days. The total number of patient days was 2309 and the period of device utilization was 2211 days. The common bacteria detected were extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) Klebsiella pneumoniae (n=6); Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n=6); Acinetobacter species (n=5); Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)(n=3); and (non- ESBL) Klebsiella pneumoniae (n=2). Multivariable analysis using Cox Proportional Hazard Model showed that the predictors for developing bacteremia were cancer, MRSA carriage, duration of central venous catheter (CVC) infusion, frequency change of CVC, and the administration of hydrocortisone drugs. These results indicate that a combination of nursing and medical interventions as well as patients' severity of illness could lead to bacteremia in ICU. Strategic implementation of quality assurance measures in ICUs could help to control this problem.Tropical biomedicine 08/2010; 27(2):308-16. · 0.82 Impact Factor