Prevalence of nosocomial infection and antibiotic use at a university medical center in Malaysia.
ABSTRACT Most reports of nosocomial infection (NI) prevalence have come from developed countries with established infection control programs. In developing countries, infection control is often not as well established due to lack of staff and resources. We examined the rate of NI in our institution.
A point-prevalence study of NI and antibiotic prescribing was conducted. On July 16 and 17, 2001, all inpatients were surveyed for NI, risk factors, pathogens isolated, and antibiotics prescribed and their indication. NIs were diagnosed according to CDC criteria. Cost of antibiotic acquisition was calculated by treatment indication.
Tertiary-care referral center in Malaysia.
All inpatients during the time of the study.
Five hundred thirty-eight patients were surveyed. Seventy-five had 103 NIs for a prevalence of 13.9%. The most common NIs were urinary tract infections (12.2%), pneumonia (21.4%), laboratory-confirmed bloodstream infections (12.2%), deep surgical wound infections (11.2%), and clinical sepsis (22.4%). Pseudomonas aeruginosa, MRSA, and MSSA were the most common pathogens. Two hundred thirty-seven patients were taking 347 courses of antibiotics, for an overall prevalence of antibiotic use of 44%. NI treatment accounted for 36% of antibiotic courses prescribed but 47% of antibiotic cost. Cost of antibiotic acquisition for NI treatment was estimated to be approximately 2 million per year (Malaysian dollars).
Whereas the rate of NI is relatively high at our center compared with rates from previous reports, antibiotic use is among the highest reported in any study of this kind. Further research into this high rate of antibiotic use is urgently required.
- The Journal of Infectious Diseases 05/1974; 129(4):421-8. · 5.85 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In 1983 a national prevalence survey was conducted in Italy to discover the general distribution of infection among patients in public hospitals. Thirty-four thousand, five hundred and seventy-seven acute patients were surveyed in 130 hospitals spread throughout the country: 6668 patients (19.3%) had an active infection at the time of the survey; the infection was hospital-acquired in 2361 (6.8%) and community-acquired in 4307 (12.5%). The urinary tract was the site most frequently involved in hospital infection (30.2% of patients with hospital-acquired infection). The respiratory tract was the site most often involved in community infections (35.7% for the lower tract and 9.1% for the upper). Hospital-acquired infections were more frequent in intensive care units (12.4%) and in geriatric (11.6%), orthopaedic (8.2%) and surgical wards (7.6%). The prevalence of urinary tract infection was 10.4% among the 9.4% of patients who were catheterized compared with a prevalence of 2.6% in the uncatheterized. Thirty-five point five per cent of patients were receiving an antimicrobial on the day of the survey.Journal of Hospital Infection 08/1986; 8(1):72-85. · 2.86 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The first national survey of the prevalence of nosocomial and community-acquired infections in Australian hospitals was carried out during July 1984. Data were collected on 28,643 patients in rural and metropolitan, public and private acute-care hospitals. The over-all adjusted prevalence of nosocomial infections was 6.3%; the prevalence of community-acquired infection was 9.7%. A total of 5940 infections occurred; 39% were hospital-acquired infections and 61% were community-acquired infections. These occurred at the following sites: the respiratory tract, 35.4% (2100 infections; contributing 19% of hospital-acquired infections and 46% of community-acquired infections); the urinary tract, 15.1% (896 infections; contributing 22% of hospital-acquired infections and 11% of community-acquired infections); surgical wounds, 13.4% (797 infections; contributing 34% of hospital-acquired infections); the gastrointestinal tract, 7.8% (466 infections; contributing 3.4% of hospital-acquired infections and 11% of community-acquired infections); skin, 6.3% (376 infections; contributing 4.4% of hospital-acquired infections and 8% of community-acquired infections); abscesses, 1.9% (113 infections; contributing 0.9% of hospital-acquired infections and 2% of community-acquired infections); traumatic wounds, 1.5% (90 infections; contributing 0.9% of hospital-acquired infections and 2% of community-acquired infections); bacteraemia, 1.5% (89 infections; contributing 1.6% of hospital-acquired infections and 1% of community-acquired infections); burns, 0.2% (14 infections; contributing 0.3% of hospital-acquired infections and 0.2% of community-acquired infections); and other, 16.8% (999 infections; contributing 13.4% of hospital-acquired infections and 19% of community-acquired infections). There was a significant association between hospital size and infection rates. The nosocomial infection prevalence rate increased from 4.2% in hospitals with 50-99 beds to 7.6% in hospitals with 500 or more beds. The prevalence of community-acquired infections was higher in rural (11.5%) than in metropolitan (8.7%) hospitals. After adjusting for hospital size, public hospitals had significantly-higher prevalences of nosocomial (6.7%) and community-acquired (10.6%) infection than did private hospitals (nosocomial infection, 4.8%; community-acquired infection, 6.3%).The Medical journal of Australia 01/1988; 149(11-12):582-90. · 2.85 Impact Factor