Prevalence of nosocomial infection and antibiotic use at a university medical center in Malaysia.
ABSTRACT Most reports of nosocomial infection (NI) prevalence have come from developed countries with established infection control programs. In developing countries, infection control is often not as well established due to lack of staff and resources. We examined the rate of NI in our institution.
A point-prevalence study of NI and antibiotic prescribing was conducted. On July 16 and 17, 2001, all inpatients were surveyed for NI, risk factors, pathogens isolated, and antibiotics prescribed and their indication. NIs were diagnosed according to CDC criteria. Cost of antibiotic acquisition was calculated by treatment indication.
Tertiary-care referral center in Malaysia.
All inpatients during the time of the study.
Five hundred thirty-eight patients were surveyed. Seventy-five had 103 NIs for a prevalence of 13.9%. The most common NIs were urinary tract infections (12.2%), pneumonia (21.4%), laboratory-confirmed bloodstream infections (12.2%), deep surgical wound infections (11.2%), and clinical sepsis (22.4%). Pseudomonas aeruginosa, MRSA, and MSSA were the most common pathogens. Two hundred thirty-seven patients were taking 347 courses of antibiotics, for an overall prevalence of antibiotic use of 44%. NI treatment accounted for 36% of antibiotic courses prescribed but 47% of antibiotic cost. Cost of antibiotic acquisition for NI treatment was estimated to be approximately 2 million per year (Malaysian dollars).
Whereas the rate of NI is relatively high at our center compared with rates from previous reports, antibiotic use is among the highest reported in any study of this kind. Further research into this high rate of antibiotic use is urgently required.
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ABSTRACT: The role of fomites and the environment in nosocomial infections is becoming widely recognized. In this paper we discuss the use of Cupron copper oxide impregnated non-porous solid surface in the hospital setting and present in vitro testing data via USA Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) approved testing protocols that demonstrate the efficacy of these products to assist in reduction in environmental contamination and potentially nosocomial infections. The two countertops tested passed all the acceptance criteria by the EPA (>99.9% kill within 2 hours of exposure) killing a range of bacterial pathogens on the surface of the countertops even after repeated exposure of the countertops to the pathogen, and multiple wet and dry abrasion cycles. Cupron enhanced EOS countertops thus may be an important adjunct to be used in hospital settings to reduce environmental bioburden and potentially nosocomial infections.BMC Microbiology 03/2014; 14(1):57. · 2.98 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objective. To explore differences in the prevalence of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) according to survey methodology. Design. Repeated point and period prevalence survey strategies. Setting. University-affiliated primary and tertiary care center. Methods. Analysis of data collected from 2006 to 2012 from annual HAI prevalence surveys using definitions proposed by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The study design allowed the analysis of the same data in the format of a point or a period prevalence survey. Results. Pooled point and period HAI prevalence was 7.46% and 9.84% (+32%), respectively. This additional 32% was mainly attributable to infections of the lower respiratory tract (2.42% vs 3.20% [+32%]) and the urinary tract (1.76% vs 2.62% [+49%]). Differences in surgical site infections (1.02% vs 1.20% [+19%]) and bloodstream infections (0.76% vs 0.86% [+13%]) were smaller. HAI prevalence for the point and period methodology in acute and long-term care were 7.47% versus 9.38 (+26%) and 8.37% versus 11.89% (+42%), respectively. Differences were stable over time. Focusing on the 4 major HAIs (respiratory tract, urinary tract, surgical site, and bloodstream infections) misses one-quarter of all HAIs. Conclusions. More HAIs are identified by the period prevalence method, especially those of shorter duration (lower respiratory and urinary tract), which would make this method more suitable to be used in long-term care. Results of the 2 study methods cannot be benchmarked against each other.Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology 06/2014; 35(6):674-84. · 4.02 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Bloodstream infections (BSIs) are one of the major life-threatening infections in hospitals. They are responsible for prolonged hospital stays, high healthcare costs, and significant mortality. The epidemiology of BSIs varies between hospitals necessitating analysis of local trends. Few studies are available on trauma patients, who are predisposed due to the presence of multiple invasive devices. A prospective surveillance of all BSIs was done at a level 1 trauma center from April, 2011 to March, 2012. All patients admitted to the different trauma intensive care units (ICUs) were monitored daily by attending physicians for subsequent development of nosocomial BSI. An episode of BSI was identified when patients presented with one or more of the following signs/symptoms, that is, fever, hypothermia, chills, or hypotension and at least one or more blood culture samples demonstrated growth of pathogenic bacteria. BSIs were further divided into primary and secondary BSIs as per the definitions of Center for Disease Control and Prevention. All patients developing nosocomial BSIs were followed till their final outcome. A total of 296 episodes of nosocomial BSIs were observed in 240 patients. A source of BSI was identified in 155 (52%) episodes. Ventilator-associated pneumonia was the most common source of secondary BSI. The most common organism was Acinetobacter sp. (21.5%). Candida sp. accounted for 12% of all blood stream organisms. A high prevalence of antimicrobial resistance was observed in Gram-negative and-positive pathogens. Trauma patients had a high prevalence of BSIs. Since secondary bacteremia was more common, a targeted approach to prevention of individual infections would help in reducing the burden of BSIs.Journal of laboratory physicians 01/2014; 6(1):22-7.