Remarkable progress has been made to identify genes expressed in squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck (HNSCC). However, limited information is available on their corresponding protein products, whose expression, post-translational modifications, and activity are ultimately responsible for the malignant behavior of this tumor type. We have combined laser-capture microdissection (LCM) with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to identify proteins expressed in histologically normal squamous epithelium and matching SCC. The protein fraction from approximately 10,000-15,000 normal and tumor cells was solubilized, digested with trypsin, and the resulting peptides were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Database searching of the resulting sequence information identified 30-55 proteins per sample. Keratins were the most abundant proteins in both normal and tumor tissues. Among the proteins differentially expressed, keratin 13 was much lower in tumors, whereas heat-shock (Hsp) family members were highly expressed in neoplastic cells. Wnt-6 and Wnt-14 were identified in both normal and tumor tissues, respectively, and placental growth factor (PIGF) was detected only in tumors. Immunohistochemical analysis of HNSCC tissues revealed lack of keratin 13 in tumor tissues, and strong staining in normal epithelia, and high expression of Hsp90 in tumors. Our study, by combining LCM and proteomic technologies, underscores the advantages of this approach to investigate complex changes at the protein level in HNSCC, thus complementing existing and emerging genomic technologies. These efforts may likely result in the identification of new biomarkers for HNSCC that can be used to diagnose disease, predict susceptibility, and monitor progression in individual patients.
"Considerable evidence has shown a significant association between the heat-shock protein 90 (Hsp90) and a wide range of human malignancies, including head and neck cancers (Ito et al, 1998; Baker et al, 2005; Yin et al, 2005). Grp94, also known as gp96, is the ER-resident member of the Hsp90 family constitutively expressed in virtually all cell types (Van et al, 1989) and the most abundant ER chaperon protein showing high homology (50%) to cytosolic counterpart Hsp90 (Sorger and Pelham, 1987). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To characterise Ca(2+) -binding protein gene expression changes in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs), we compared the gene expression profiles in OSCC-derived cell lines with normal oral tissues. One hundred Ca(2+) -binding protein genes differentially expressed in OSCCs were identified, and genetic pathways associated with expression changes were generated. Among genes mapped to the network with the highest significance, glucose-regulated protein 94 kDa (Grp94) was evaluated further for mRNA and protein expression in the OSCC cell lines, primary OSCCs, and oral premalignant lesions (OPLs). A significant (P<0.001) overexpression of Grp94 protein was observed in all cell lines compared to normal oral epithelium. Immunohistochemical analysis showed highly expressed Grp94 in primary OSCCs and OPLs, whereas most of the corresponding normal tissues had no protein immunoreaction. Real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR data agreed with the protein expression status. Moreover, overexpression of Grp94 in primary tumours was significantly (P<0.001) correlated with poor disease-free survival. The results suggested that Grp94 may have potential clinical application as a novel diagnosis and prognostic biomarker for human OSCCs.
British Journal of Cancer 09/2007; 97(6):792-801. DOI:10.1038/sj.bjc.6603948 · 4.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tumor metastasis is the dominant cause of death in cancer patients. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying tumor metastasis are still elusive. The identification of protein molecules with their expressions correlated to the metastatic process would help to understand the metastatic mechanisms and thus facilitate the development of strategies for the therapeutic interventions and clinical management of cancer. Proteomics is a systematic research approach aiming to provide the global characterization of protein expression and function under given conditions. Proteomic technology has been widely used in biomarker discovery and pathogenetic studies including tumor metastasis. This article provides a brief review of the application of proteomics in identifying molecular factors in tumor metastasis process. The combination of proteomics with other experimental approaches in biochemistry, cell biology, molecular genetics and chemistry, together with the development of new technologies and improvements in existing methodologies will continue to extend its application in studying cancer metastasis.
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