Bacterial toxins that modulate host cell-cycle progression.
ABSTRACT The mammalian cell cycle is involved in many processes--such as immune responses, maintenance of epithelial barrier functions, and cellular differentiation--that affect the growth and colonization of pathogenic bacteria. Therefore it is not surprising that many bacterial pathogens manipulate the host cell cycle with respect to these functions. Cyclomodulins are a growing family of bacterial toxins and effectors that interfere with the eukaryotic cell cycle. Here, we review some of these cyclomodulins such as cytolethal distending toxins, vacuolating cytotoxin, the polyketide-derived macrolide mycolactone, cycle-inhibiting factor, cytotoxic necrotizing factors, dermonecrotic toxin, Pasteurella multocida toxin and cytotoxin-associated antigen A. We describe and compare their effects on the mammalian cell cycle and their putative role in disease, commensalism and symbiosis. We also discuss a possible link between these cyclomodulins and cancer.
- SourceAvailable from: sciencedirect.com[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Postembryonic development of plant organs requires a constant interplay between the cell cycle and the developmental programs. Upon endo- and exogenous signals, plant cells can enter, exit or modify the cell cycle. Alteration of mitotic cycles to endoreduplication cycles, where the genome is duplicated without mitosis, is common in plants and may play a role in cell differentiation. The switch from the mitotic to endocycles is regulated by Ccs52A, a plant orthologue of the yeast and animal Cdhl proteins, acting as substrate-specific activator of the anaphase-promoting complex E3 ubiquitin ligase. Here, several aspects of endoreduplication are discussed with special attention on nitrogen-fixing nodule development where endoreduplication is an integral part of symbiotic cell differentiation.FEBS Letters 07/2004; 567(1):152-7. · 3.58 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Cytolethal distending toxin (CDT), produced by Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, is a putative virulence factor in the pathogenesis of periodontal diseases. It is a cell cycle specific inhibitor at the G2/M transition. CDTB, one of the subunits of the CDT holotoxin, is implicated in a genotoxic role after entering the target cells, whereby chromosomal damage induces checkpoint phosphorylation cascades. CDTB microinjected into the cytoplasm was shown to localize in the nucleus and induce chromatin collapse. To investigate the molecular mechanism involved in nuclear transport of CDTB, we used transient expression and microinjection of a CDTB-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion protein. After microinjection, His-tagged CDTB-GFP entered the nucleus in 3-4 h. Leptomycin B did not increase the speed of entry of the fusion protein, suggesting that the relatively slow entry of the fusion protein is not due to the CRM1-dependent nuclear export of the protein. Nuclear localization of the CDTBGFP was temperature-dependent. An in vitro transport assay demonstrated that the nuclear localization of CDTB is mediated by active transport. An assay using transient expression of a series of truncated CDTB-GFP fusion proteins revealed that residues 48-124 constitute the minimum region involved in nuclear transport of CDTB. A domain swapping experiment of the region involved in nuclear transport of CDTB with an SV40 T nuclear localization signal indicated that CDTB is composed of two domains, an N-terminal domain for nuclear transport and a C-terminal active domain. Our results strongly suggest that nuclear localization of CDTB is required for the holotoxin to induce cytodistension and cell cycle block. This is the first demonstration that a bacterial toxin possessing a unique domain for nuclear transport is transferred to the animal cell nucleus by active transport.Journal of Biological Chemistry 01/2004; 278(50):50671-81. · 4.65 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Many bacterial pathogens encode the cytolethal distending toxin (CDT), which causes host cells to arrest during their cell cycle by inflicting DNA damage. CDT is composed of three proteins, CdtA, CdtB, and CdtC. CdtB is the enzymatically active or A subunit, which possesses DNase I-like activity, whereas CdtA and CdtC function as heteromeric B subunits that mediate the delivery of CdtB into host cells. We show here that Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi encodes CDT activity, which depends on the function of a CdtB homologous protein. Remarkably, S. enterica serovar Typhi does not encode apparent homologs of CdtA or CdtC. Instead, we found that toxicity, as well as cdtB expression, requires bacterial internalization into host cells. We propose a pathway of toxin delivery in which bacterial internalization relieves the requirement for the functional equivalent of the B subunit of the CDT toxin.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 04/2004; 101(13):4614-9. · 9.74 Impact Factor