Histiocytic sarcoma: a study of five cases including the histiocyte marker CD163.
ABSTRACT Histiocytic sarcoma (HS) is a rare but controversial hematopoietic neoplasm. In the past, malignancies have been misclassified as histiocytic tumors due to overlapping histologic features and inadequate phenotypic data. CD163, a recently characterized hemoglobin scavenger receptor, appears to be a 'specific' marker of histiocytic lineage and a promising diagnostic tool for evaluating histiocytic neoplasms. Five cases of HS were studied to further elucidate the clinicopathologic features of these rare tumors and to demonstrate the diagnostic utility of CD163. Criteria for diagnosis included histologic and immunohistochemical evidence of histiocytic differentiation, CD45 positivity, and exclusion of lymphoid, epithelial, melanocytic and dendritic cell phenotype. Sites of disease included the colon (two cases), palate, inguinal lymph node, and testis. The clinical course was aggressive in 4/5 patients (survival=2-15 months). One patient with localized disease of the palate, survived 17 years after diagnosis. All patients with poor survival had tumors > or =3.5 cm. Histologically, all cases showed diffuse architecture with large, discohesive polygonal cells. Spindling of cells was focally noted. Hemophagocytosis was identified in 3/5 cases. A prominent inflammatory background was present in 4/5 tumors. All cases were immunoreactive for CD45, CD163, CD68, and lysozyme. S-100 was focally positive in 4/5 cases. Antibodies for melanocytic, epithelial, lymphoid, and dendritic cell markers were negative. Molecular studies showed monoclonal IgH gene rearrangements in three cases. Our findings suggest that HS is an uncommon neoplasm frequently extranodal in presentation and aggressive in behavior, with rare exceptions. Stage of disease and possibly tumor size are significant prognostic indicators. Molecular studies remain controversial in the diagnosis. The morphologic and phenotypic features are relatively uniform; however, the diagnosis requires exclusion of more common neoplasms by extensive immunophenotypic studies. CD163 appears to be a specific histiocytic marker and is important in establishing the diagnosis of HS.
- SourceAvailable from: PubMed Central[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Neoplasms of histiocytic and dendritic cells are rare disorders of the lymph node and soft tissues. Because of this rarity, the corresponding biology, prognosis and terminologies are still being better defined and hence historically, these disorders pose clinical and diagnostic challenges. These disorders include Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH), histiocytic sarcoma (HS), follicular dendritic cell sarcoma (FDCS), interdigtating cell sarcoma (IDCS), indeterminate cell sarcoma (INDCS), and fibroblastic reticular cell tumors (FRCT). In order to gain a better understanding of the biology, diagnosis, and treatment in these rare disorders we reviewed our cases of these neoplasms over the last twenty five years and the pertinent literature in each of these rare neoplasms. Cases of histiocytic and dendritic cell neoplasms diagnosed between 1989-2014 were identified using our institutional database. Thirty two cases were included in this analysis and were comprised of the following: Langerhans cell histiocytosis (20/32), histiocytic sarcoma (6/32), follicular dendritic cell sarcoma (2/32), interdigitating dendritic cell sarcoma (2/32), indeterminate dendritic cell sarcoma (1/32), and fibroblastic reticular cell tumor (1/32). Median overall survival was not reached in cases with LCH and showed 52 months in cases with HS, 12 months in cases with FDCS, 58 months in cases with IDCS, 13 months in the case of INDCS, and 51 months in the case of FRCT. The majority of patients had surgical resection as initial treatment (n = 18). Five patients had recurrent disease. We conclude that histiocytic and dendritic cell neoplasms are very rare and perplexing disorders that should be diagnosed with a combination of judicious morphology review and a battery of immunohistochemistry to rule out mimics such as carcinoma, lymphoma, neuroendocrine tumors and to better sub-classify these difficult to diagnose lesions. The mainstay of treatment for localized disease remains surgical resection and the role of adjuvant therapy is unclear. In patients with multiple areas of involvement, treatment at tertiary care centers with multimodality treatment is likely needed. Accurate subset diagnosis will contribute to better data as well as treatment outcomes analysis of these rare disorders of adult patients in the future.Cancers. 12/2014; 6(4):2275-2295.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Histiocytic sarcoma (HS) is a malignant tumor composed of proliferating cells of histiocytic origin. True HS is exceedingly rare, particularly in pediatric patients. These tumors are frequently aggressive, and outcome for patients with HS has traditionally been poor. There is currently no consensus on the optimal management of these tumors, with the literature consisting largely of case reports and small case series utilizing a wide variety of therapies. We describe a case of HS in an 8-year-old female who was successfully treated with an abbreviated leukemia chemotherapy regimen. Pediatr Blood Cancer © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Pediatric Blood & Cancer 05/2014; · 2.56 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Histiocytic sarcoma is a malignant proliferation of cells showing morphological and immunophenotypic features of mature tissue histiocytes. Most of the cases in the literature have reported CD68 positivity. We report a case of histiocytic sarcoma whose presentation mimicked a metastatic breast cancer. A 40-year-female patient presented with a 13 × 11 cm left axillary mass in close proximity to the left breast. Tru-cut biopsy from the lesion suggested the diagnosis of a lymphoid neoplasm. Complete excision of the axillary mass was done. On simple microscopy, numerous mature small lymphocytes were seen dispersed in the follicles. Immunohistochemistry revealed CD31- and CD163-positive cells, which stained negative for CD68, CD1a, cytokeratin and S100; thus, confirming the diagnosis of histiocytic sarcoma.Journal of surgical case reports. 07/2014; 2014(7).