Role of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha in hypoxia-induced apoptosis of primary alveolar epithelial type II cells.
ABSTRACT Hypoxia affects alveolar homeostasis and may induce epithelial injury, which has been implicated in lung diseases such as fibrosis. The underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms are, however, largely unknown. Primary rat alveolar epithelial type II cells (ATII) exposed to graded hypoxia for 24 and 48 h caused a dose-dependent induction of cell cycle arrest and suppression of proliferation, which were comparable to the effects of angiotensin II, a potent inducer of ATII cell death. Hypoxia-induced changes in ATII homeostasis are thought to proceed primarily via activation of hypoxia inducible-factor (HIF)-1alpha, because hypoxia increased HIF-1alpha protein expression, nuclear translocation, and transactivation of its specific DNA binding domain, the hypoxia responsive element (HRE). Under hypoxic conditions, expression of the proapoptotic protein Bnip3L, which belongs to the Bcl 2 family and is known to be one of the HIF-1-dependent target genes, was upregulated. Suppression of HIF-1alpha or Bnip-3L with small interfering RNA (siRNA) fully blocked the hypoxia-induced apoptosis and Bnip3L expression. In line with these data, overexpression of HIF-1alpha by transient transfection enhanced the hypoxia-induced apoptosis. Thus, we conclude that hypoxia suppresses alveolar epithelial cell proliferation and enhances ATII apoptosis through activation of the HIF-1alpha/HRE axis and a mechanism that involves Bnip3L. Targeting HIF-1alpha may represent a new strategy that could impede the alveolar denudation that is observed in several lung diseases.
- SourceAvailable from: Xiaopeng Li[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: An established body of literature supports the hypothesis that activation of a local tissue angiotensin (ANG) system in the extravascular tissue compartment of the lungs is required for lung fibrogenesis. Transcriptional activation of the angiotensinogen (AGT) gene is believed to be a critical and necessary step in this activation. This paper summarizes the data in support of this theory and discusses transcriptional regulation of AGT, with an emphasis on lung AGT synthesis as a determinant of fibrosis severity. Genetic data linking AGT polymorphisms to the severity of disease in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis are also discussed.International Journal of Peptides 01/2012; 2012:875910.
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ABSTRACT: Alveolar epithelial cells are directly exposed to acute and chronic fluctuations in alveolar oxygen tension. Previously, we found that the oxygen-binding protein hemoglobin is expressed in alveolar Type II cells (ATII). Here, we report that ATII cells also express a number of highly specific transcription factors and other genes normally associated with hemoglobin biosynthesis in erythroid precursors. Because hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) were shown to play a role in hypoxia-induced changes in ATII homeostasis, we hypothesized that the hypoxia-induced increase in intracellular HIF exerts a concomitant effect on ATII hemoglobin expression. Treatment of cells from the ATII-like immortalized mouse lung epithelial cell line-15 (MLE-15) with hypoxia for 20 hours resulted in dramatic increases in cellular levels of HIF-2α protein and parallel significant increases in hemoglobin messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression, as compared with that of control cells cultured in normoxia. Significant increases in the mRNA of globin-associated transcription factors were also observed, and RNA interference (RNAi) experiments demonstrated that the expression of hemoglobin is at least partially dependent on the cellular levels of globin-associated transcription factor isoform 1 (GATA-1). Conversely, levels of prosurfactant proteins B and C significantly decreased in the same cells after exposure to hypoxia. The treatment of MLE-15 cells cultured in normoxia with prolyl 4-hydroxylase inhibitors, which mimic the effects of hypoxia, resulted in increases of hemoglobin and decreases of surfactant proteins. Taken together, these results suggest a relationship between hypoxia, HIFs, and the expression of hemoglobin, and imply that hemoglobin may be involved in the oxygen-sensing pathway in alveolar epithelial cells.American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology 04/2011; 44(4):439-47. · 4.15 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Estrogens promote beneficial effects in the cardiovascular system mainly through the estrogen receptor (ER)α and ERβ, which act as ligand-gated transcription factors. Recently, the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) has been implicated in the estrogenic signaling in diverse tissues, including the cardiovascular system. In this study, we demonstrate that left ventricles of male Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHR) express higher levels of GPER compared to normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats. In addition, we show that the selective GPER agonist G-1 induces negative inotropic and lusitropic effects to a higher extent in isolated and Langendorff perfused hearts of male SHR compared to WKY rats. These cardiotropic effects elicited by G-1 involved the GPER/eNOS transduction signaling, as determined by using the GPER antagonist G15 and the eNOS inhibitor L-NIO. Similarly, the G-1 induced activation of ERK1/2, AKT, GSK3β, c-Jun and eNOS was abrogated by G15, while L-NIO prevented only the eNOS phosphorylation. In hypoxic Langendorff perfused WKY rat heart preparations, we also found an increased expression of GPER along with that of the hypoxic mediator HIF-1α and the fibrotic marker CTGF. Interestingly, G15 and L-NIO prevented the ability of G-1 to down-regulate the expression of both HIF-1α and CTGF, which were found expressed to a higher extent in SHR compared to WKY rat hearts. Collectively, the present study provides novel data into the potential role played by GPER in hypertensive disease on the basis of its involvement in myocardial inotropism and lusitropism as well as the expression of the apoptotic HIF-1α and fibrotic CTGF factors. Hence, GPER may be considered as a useful target in the treatment of some cardiac dysfunctions associated with stressful conditions like the essential hypertension.PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(8):e69322. · 3.73 Impact Factor