Septicemia and peritonitis in a colony of common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) secondary to Klebsiella pneumoniae infection.
ABSTRACT Six common marmosets from a colony of 50 died over a period of 3 weeks, with the predominant finding of gram-negative bacterial septicemia. Four of these animals died peracutely; the other two were found when they were moribund, and they subsequently died despite clinical intervention. Gram-negative bacterial rods were present in the blood vessels of stained tissues from five of the six marmosets. Three marmosets also had severe fibrinopurulent peritonitis. In addition, one of the marmosets with peritonitis also had purulent mesenteric lymphadenitis with large colonies of gram-negative bacterial rods within dialated colonic crypts. Klebsiella pneumoniae was isolated from multiple organs in three of the marmosets. Clinical evaluation of the entire colony identified four marmosets with anorexia, nasopharyngeal discharge and diarrhea. These marmosets were treated with enrofloxacin immediately, and they responded well. K. pneumonia could not be cultured from nasal or fecal samples obtained from the colony animals. Because of the peracute nature of the disease, animals often die before exhibiting clinical symptoms, and antibiotics are seldom helpful. In this outbreak we saw both of the major forms of Klebsiella infection in common marmosets: the peracute form with bacteremia and minimal inflammatory reaction around blood vessels, and the chronic form with bacteremia, fibrinopurulent peritonitis, and mesenteric lymphadenitis.
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ABSTRACT: Invasive Klebsiella pneumoniae with the hypermucoviscosity phenotype (HMV K. pneumoniae) is an emerging human pathogen that also has been attributed to fatal multisystemic disease in African green monkeys at our institution. Combining a cluster of subclinically infected macaques identified in March and April 2008 and the animals documented during a subsequent survey of more than 300 colony nonhuman primates yielded a total of 9 rhesus macaques and 6 cynomolgus macaques that were subclinically infected. In an attempt to propagate the responsible HMV K. pneumoniae strain, a subset of these animals was immunosuppressed with dexamethasone. None of the treated animals developed clinical disease consistent with the multisystemic disease that affected colony African green monkeys. However, cytokine analysis revealed significant alterations of secreted cytokines in macaques subclinically infected with HMV K. pneumoniae when compared with noninfected macaques, thereby calling into question the suitability of animals subclinically infected with HMV K. pneumoniae for use in immunologic or infectious disease research.Comparative medicine 01/2010; 60(1):62-70. · 0.76 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Invasive Klebsiella pneumoniae with hypermucoviscosity phenotype (HMV K. pneumoniae) is an emerging human pathogen that, over the past 20 y, has resulted in a distinct clinical syndrome characterized by pyogenic liver abscesses sometimes complicated by bacteremia, meningitis, and endophthalmitis. Infections occur predominantly in Taiwan and other Asian countries, but HMV K. pneumoniae is considered an emerging infectious disease in the United States and other Western countries. In 2005, fatal multisystemic disease was attributed to HMV K. pneumoniae in African green monkeys (AGM) at our institution. After identification of a cluster of subclinically infected macaques in March and April 2008, screening of all colony nonhuman primates by oropharyngeal and rectal culture revealed 19 subclinically infected rhesus and cynomolgus macaques. PCR testing for 2 genes associated with HMV K. pneumoniae, rmpA and magA, suggested genetic variability in the samples. Random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis on a subset of clinical isolates confirmed a high degree of genetic diversity between the samples. Environmental testing did not reveal evidence of aerosol or droplet transmission of the organism in housing areas. Further research is needed to characterize HMV K. pneumoniae, particularly with regard to genetic differences among bacterial strains and their relationship to human disease and to the apparent susceptibility of AGM to this organism.Comparative medicine 12/2009; 59(6):589-97. · 0.76 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We examined the efficacy of enrofloxacin administered by 2 different routes in a mouse model of sepsis. Male CD1 mice were infected with a bioluminescent strain of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli and treated with enrofloxacin either by injection or in drinking water. Peak serum levels were evaluated by using HPLC. Mice were monitored for signs of clinical disease, and infections were monitored by using bioluminescence imaging. Serum levels of enrofloxacin and the active metabolite ciprofloxacin were greater in the group treated by injection than in controls or the groups treated by administration in drinking water. Survival of the group treated with enrofloxacin injection was greater than that of controls and groups treated with enrofloxacin in the drinking water. Bioluminescence in the group treated with enrofloxacin injection was less than that in the groups treated with oral administration at 12 h and in the groups treated orally and the control group at 16 h. According to these findings, we recommend the use of injectable enrofloxacin at 5 mg/kg SC for mice with systemic infections.Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS 01/2014; 53(4). · 0.73 Impact Factor