Recommendations for Blood Pressure Measurement in Humans and Experimental Animals: Part 1: Blood Pressure Measurement in Humans: A Statement for Professionals From the Subcommittee of Professional and Public Education of the American Heart Association Council on High Blood Pressure Research

Circulation (Impact Factor: 14.43). 03/2005; 111(5):697-716. DOI: 10.1161/01.CIR.0000154900.76284.F6
Source: PubMed


Accurate measurement of blood pressure is essential to classify individuals, to ascertain blood pressure-related risk, and to guide management. The auscultatory technique with a trained observer and mercury sphygmomanometer continues to be the method of choice for measurement in the office, using the first and fifth phases of the Korotkoff sounds, including in pregnant women. The use of mercury is declining, and alternatives are needed. Aneroid devices are suitable, but they require frequent calibration. Hybrid devices that use electronic transducers instead of mercury have promise. The oscillometric method can be used for office measurement, but only devices independently validated according to standard protocols should be used, and individual calibration is recommended. They have the advantage of being able to take multiple measurements. Proper training of observers, positioning of the patient, and selection of cuff size are all essential. It is increasingly recognized that office measurements correlate poorly with blood pressure measured in other settings, and that they can be supplemented by self-measured readings taken with validated devices at home. There is increasing evidence that home readings predict cardiovascular events and are particularly useful for monitoring the effects of treatment. Twenty-four-hour ambulatory monitoring gives a better prediction of risk than office measurements and is useful for diagnosing white-coat hypertension. There is increasing evidence that a failure of blood pressure to fall during the night may be associated with increased risk. In obese patients and children, the use of an appropriate cuff size is of paramount importance.

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    • "Resting blood pressure was based on the average of the 2nd and 3rd readings. A participant was identified as hypertensive if their average systolic was ≥ 140 mm Hg or average diastolic was ≥ 90 mm Hg based on the American Heart Association guidelines (Pickering et al., 2005). Spot urine samples were obtained for analyses of sodium excretion (Perry et al., 2010). "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To examine if employees with higher nutrition knowledge have better diet quality and lower prevalence of hypertension. Method: Cross-sectional baseline data were obtained from the complex workplace dietary intervention trial, the Food Choice at Work Study. Participants included 828 randomly selected employees (18-64. years) recruited from four multinational manufacturing workplaces in Ireland, 2013. A validated questionnaire assessed nutrition knowledge. Food Frequency Questionnaires (FFQ) measured diet quality from which a DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) score was constructed. Standardised digital blood pressure monitors measured hypertension. Results: Nutrition knowledge was positively associated with diet quality after adjustment for age, gender, health status, lifestyle and socio-demographic characteristics. The odds of having a high DASH score (better diet quality) were 6 times higher in the highest nutrition knowledge group compared to the lowest group (OR. =. 5.8, 95% CI 3.5 to 9.6). Employees in the highest nutrition knowledge group were 60% less likely to be hypertensive compared to the lowest group (OR. =. 0.4, 95% CI 0.2 to 0.87). However, multivariate analyses were not consistent with a mediation effect of the DASH score on the association between nutrition knowledge and blood pressure. Conclusion: Higher nutrition knowledge is associated with better diet quality and lower blood pressure but the inter-relationships between these variables are complex.
    12/2015; 2:105-113. DOI:10.1016/j.pmedr.2014.11.008
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    • "After resting for ≥15 min in the supine position, PWV, BP and heart rate (HR) were assessed using an automated VS-1500AE/AN device (Fukuda Denshi, Tokyo, Japan) as described (Namekata et al. 2011; Shirai et al. 2011; Sun 2013). This device records BP in both brachial locations of supine participants and the procedure conformed strictly to American Heart Association guidelines (Pickering et al. 2005). As previously reported (Namekata et al. 2011; Shirai et al. 2011; Sun 2013), the CAVI values at the right and left sides were also automatically calculated from 5 to 6 pulse wave signals using the following formula: CAVI = a [(2ρ/PP) × ln(SBP/DBP) × PWV2] + b, where SBP is systolic blood pressure, DBP is diastolic blood pressure, PP (pulse pressure) is SBP − DBP, ρ is the blood density, and a and b are constants. "
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    ABSTRACT: Trunk flexibility may be associated with arterial stiffness in young, middle-aged, and older healthy men after adjusting for blood pressure. This study assessed the effects of 4 weeks of regular static stretching on arterial stiffness in middle-aged men. Sixteen healthy men (43 ± 3 years) were assigned to control or intervention groups (n = 8 each). The control group did not alter their physical activity levels throughout the study period. The intervention group participated in five supervised stretching sessions per week for 4 weeks. Each session comprised 30 min of mild stretching that moved the major muscle groups through the full range of motion and stretches were held three times for 20 s at the end range. Flexibility was assessed by sit-and-reach test. Arterial stiffness was assessed by brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) and cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI). Four weeks of stretching increased sit-and-reach (Control, Pre: 31.4 ± 2.1, Post: 30.8 ± 2.7 vs. Intervention, Pre: 30.6 ± 5.3, Post: 43.9 ± 4.3 cm), and reduced baPWV (Control, Pre: 1204 ± 25, Post: 1205 ± 38 vs. Intervention, Pre: 1207 ± 28, Post: 1145 ± 19 cm/s) and CAVI (Control, Pre: 7.6 ± 0.3, Post: 7.5 ± 0.3 vs. Intervention, Pre: 7.7 ± 0.2, Post: 7.2 ± 0.2 units) in the intervention group. However, the change in sit-and-reach did not significantly correlate with the changes in arterial stiffness. These findings suggest that short-term regular stretching induces a significant reduction in arterial stiffness in middle-aged men.
    SpringerPlus 12/2015; 4(1). DOI:10.1186/s40064-015-1337-4
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    • "The patients completed CAT and mMRC questionnaires and underwent pre-and post bronchodilatatory spirometry. Blood pressure was obtained according to the American Heart Association Guidelines (Pickering et al., 2005). A patient was considered as having arterial hypertension if taking antihypertensives. "
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    PeerJ 07/2015; 3(Suppl. 56):e1068. DOI:10.7717/peerj.1068 · 2.11 Impact Factor
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