Yeast glutamine-fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase (Gfa1) requires methionine aminopeptidase activity for proper function
ABSTRACT Methionine aminopeptidase (MetAP) catalyzes the co-translational processing of initiator methionine from nascent proteins. A cellular requirement for MetAP activity is likely due to dysfunction of MetAP substrates that require methionine removal for proper protein function. Glutamine-fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase (Gfa1) is an essential enzyme in yeast that catalyzes the first and rate-limiting step in hexosamine biosynthesis. The alpha-amino group of Gfa1 Cys-1 has been proposed to act as a nucleophile in the catalytic mechanism. We used two mutational strategies to evaluate whether removal of initiator methionine, catalyzed by MetAP, is required for Gfa1 function. Our results demonstrate that exposure of the alpha-amino group of Cys-1 is required for normal Gfa1 function as failure to do so results in decreased enzyme activity and slow growth. Further, either isoform of MetAP in yeast is sufficient for Gfa1 processing in vivo. These results are the first demonstration of an endogenous yeast protein that requires the exposure of the alpha-amino group by MetAP action for normal function. Additionally, Gfa1 will be a relevant target in therapeutic or physiological applications in which MetAP activity is inhibited.
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ABSTRACT: Methionine aminopeptidases (MetAP) are proteases which remove the N-terminal methionine from newly synthesized proteins. Associations of MetAP2 with tumor progression of different cancers have been repeatedly reported. We aim to determine if MetAP2 is expressed in cholangiocarcinomas (CCA) and investigate to see if it would be a useful therapeutic target. We evaluated MetAP2 expression by immunohistochemistry in 82 patients of intrahepatic CCA. MetAP2 was expressed in bile ducts to various degrees. It was occasionally expressed with weak staining in normal bile duct epithelium but was strikingly over-expressed in dysplastic bile duct epithelia, primary and metastatic CCA tissues (p < 0.001). The increased expression of MetAP2 in proliferating bile duct was evident. All metastatic tumors had stronger expression of MetAP2 than the corresponding primary tumors. Fumagillin, a MetAP2 specific inhibitor, significantly inhibited cell proliferation in dose dependent manner and the degree of growth inhibition was dependent on the amount of cellular enzyme. The present study highlights the involvement of MetAP2 in an early event of carcinogenesis of CCA. The findings represent the first description of increased MetAP2 expression in CCA. The inhibition of enzyme activity using MetAP2 inhibitors may be a potential strategy for long-term control of tumor development and progression in CCA patients.Acta Oncologica 01/2007; 46(3):378-85. DOI:10.1080/02841860600871061 · 3.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The N-terminus of any protein may be used as a destabilization signal for targeted protein degradation. In the eukaryotic cytosol, the signal - the so-called N-degron--is recognized for degradation by (i) the N-end rule, a well-described degradation process involving epsilon-ubiquitination; or (ii) N-terminal ubiquitination, a more recently described pathway. Dedicated E3 ubiquitin ligases known as N-recognins then act on the protein. The proteolytic pathways involve ATP-dependent chambered proteases, such as the 26S proteasome in the cytosol, which generate short oligopeptides. The N-terminus of the polypeptide chain is also important for post-proteasome degradation by specific aminopeptidases, which complete peptide cleavage to generate free amino acids. Finally, in each compartment of the eukaryotic cell, N-terminal methionine excision creates a variety of N-termini for mature proteins. It has recently been shown that the N-terminal methionine excision pathway has a major impact early in targeted protein degradation.Biological Chemistry 08/2006; 387(7):839-51. DOI:10.1515/BC.2006.107 · 2.69 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Using 3'-RACE and 5'-RACE, we have cloned and sequenced the genomic gene and complete cDNA encoding L: -glutamine D: -fructose 6-phosphate amidotransferase (GFAT) from the edible straw mushroom, Volvariella volvacea. Gfat contains five introns, and encodes a predicted protein of 697 amino acids that is homologous to other reported GFAT sequences. Southern hybridization indicated that a single gfat gene locus exists in the V. volvacea genome. Recombinant native V. volvacea GFAT enzyme, over-expressed using Escherichia coli and partially purified, had an estimated molecular mass of 306 kDa and consisted of four equal-sized subunits of 77 kD. Reciprocal plots revealed K (m) values of 0.55 and 0.75 mM for fructose 6-phosphate and L: -glutamine, respectively. V. volvacea GFAT activity was inhibited by the end-product of the hexosamine pathway, UDP-GlcNAc, and by the glutamine analogues N (3)-(4-methoxyfumaroyl)-L: -2,3-diaminopropanoic acid and 2-amino-2-deoxy-D: -glucitol-6-phosphate.The Protein Journal 02/2009; 28(1):34-43. DOI:10.1007/s10930-009-9163-6 · 1.04 Impact Factor