Methionine aminopeptidase (MetAP) catalyzes the co-translational processing of initiator methionine from nascent proteins. A cellular requirement for MetAP activity is likely due to dysfunction of MetAP substrates that require methionine removal for proper protein function. Glutamine-fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase (Gfa1) is an essential enzyme in yeast that catalyzes the first and rate-limiting step in hexosamine biosynthesis. The alpha-amino group of Gfa1 Cys-1 has been proposed to act as a nucleophile in the catalytic mechanism. We used two mutational strategies to evaluate whether removal of initiator methionine, catalyzed by MetAP, is required for Gfa1 function. Our results demonstrate that exposure of the alpha-amino group of Cys-1 is required for normal Gfa1 function as failure to do so results in decreased enzyme activity and slow growth. Further, either isoform of MetAP in yeast is sufficient for Gfa1 processing in vivo. These results are the first demonstration of an endogenous yeast protein that requires the exposure of the alpha-amino group by MetAP action for normal function. Additionally, Gfa1 will be a relevant target in therapeutic or physiological applications in which MetAP activity is inhibited.
"The function of MetAP1 is still not described in Fusarium spp., a deletion, however, reduces growth in Saccharomyces cerevisiae [18,25,26]. In both, prokaryotes and eukaryotes the N-terminal methionine is often cleaved by methionine aminopeptidase encoded by the gene MetAP1 . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fusarium graminearum sensu stricto (s.s.) is an ubiquitous pathogen of cereals. The economic impact of Fusarium head blight (FHB) is characterized by crop losses and mycotoxin contamination. Our objective was to associate SNP diversity within candidate genes with phenotypic traits. A total of 77 F. graminearum s.s. isolates was tested for severity of fungal infection (= aggressiveness) and deoxynivalenol (DON) production in an inoculated field experiment at two locations in each of two years. For seven genes known to control fungal growth (MetAP1, Erf2) or DON production (TRI1, TRI5, TRI6 TRI10 and TRI14) single nucleotides polymorphic sites (SNPs) were determined and evaluated for the extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD). Associations of SNPs with both phenotypic traits were tested using linear mixed models.
Decay of LD was in most instances fast. Two neighboring SNPs in MetAP1 and one SNP in Erf2 were significantly (P < 0.05) associated with aggressiveness explaining proportions of genotypic variance (pG) of 25.6%, 0.5%, and 13.1%, respectively. One SNP in TRI1 was significantly associated with DON production (pG = 4.4).
We argue that using the published sequence information of Fusarium graminearum as a template to amplify comparative sequence parts of candidate genes is an effective method to detect quantitative trait loci. Our findings underline the potential of candidate gene association mapping approaches to identify functional SNPs underlying aggressiveness and DON production for F. graminearum s.s populations.
"A defect in removal of N-terminal methionine caused by MetAP2 inhibition might lead to aberrant levels of proteins important for cell proliferation and apoptosis  . Non-proper processing of the N-terminal methionine residue by MetAP results in difference of the first N-terminal residue which may significantly alter the function or binding affinities of the molecules.. Decreasing activity of glutamine- fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase ; and reduction in binding of interleukin-1beta to its receptor  by dysfunction of MetAP2 are evident. TNP-470, a derivative of fumagillin, has been shown to be safe and effective in the treatment of solid tumors and arthritis in several animal studies and preclinical trials  . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Methionine aminopeptidases (MetAP) are proteases which remove the N-terminal methionine from newly synthesized proteins. Associations of MetAP2 with tumor progression of different cancers have been repeatedly reported. We aim to determine if MetAP2 is expressed in cholangiocarcinomas (CCA) and investigate to see if it would be a useful therapeutic target. We evaluated MetAP2 expression by immunohistochemistry in 82 patients of intrahepatic CCA. MetAP2 was expressed in bile ducts to various degrees. It was occasionally expressed with weak staining in normal bile duct epithelium but was strikingly over-expressed in dysplastic bile duct epithelia, primary and metastatic CCA tissues (p < 0.001). The increased expression of MetAP2 in proliferating bile duct was evident. All metastatic tumors had stronger expression of MetAP2 than the corresponding primary tumors. Fumagillin, a MetAP2 specific inhibitor, significantly inhibited cell proliferation in dose dependent manner and the degree of growth inhibition was dependent on the amount of cellular enzyme. The present study highlights the involvement of MetAP2 in an early event of carcinogenesis of CCA. The findings represent the first description of increased MetAP2 expression in CCA. The inhibition of enzyme activity using MetAP2 inhibitors may be a potential strategy for long-term control of tumor development and progression in CCA patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The N-terminus of any protein may be used as a destabilization signal for targeted protein degradation. In the eukaryotic cytosol, the signal - the so-called N-degron--is recognized for degradation by (i) the N-end rule, a well-described degradation process involving epsilon-ubiquitination; or (ii) N-terminal ubiquitination, a more recently described pathway. Dedicated E3 ubiquitin ligases known as N-recognins then act on the protein. The proteolytic pathways involve ATP-dependent chambered proteases, such as the 26S proteasome in the cytosol, which generate short oligopeptides. The N-terminus of the polypeptide chain is also important for post-proteasome degradation by specific aminopeptidases, which complete peptide cleavage to generate free amino acids. Finally, in each compartment of the eukaryotic cell, N-terminal methionine excision creates a variety of N-termini for mature proteins. It has recently been shown that the N-terminal methionine excision pathway has a major impact early in targeted protein degradation.
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.