Cattle and environmental sample-level factors associated with the presence of Salmonella in a multi-state study of conventional and organic dairy farms.
ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate associations between cattle-level factors and environmental samples with the isolation of Salmonella from dairy farms in Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, and New York. The study farms included 129 conventional and organic farms enrolled without regard to previous history of Salmonella infection. Herds were sampled at two-month intervals over a one-year period. Cattle groups more likely to be associated with Salmonella shedding (compared to preweaned calves) were cows designated as sick by farm personnel (OR=2.5, 95% CI: 1.7, 3.7), cows within 14 days of calving (OR=1.8, 95% CI: 1.1, 2.8), and cows due for culling within 14 days (OR=1.9, 95% CI: 1.0, 3.4). State of origin was also associated with the presence of Salmonella in samples from cattle and the farm environment; Midwestern states were more likely to have Salmonella-positive samples compared to New York. Cattle treated with antimicrobials within 14 days of sampling were more likely to be Salmonella-negative compared with nontreated cattle (OR=2.0, 95% CI: 1.1, 3.4). Farms with at least 100 cows were more likely to have Salmonella-positive cattle compared with smaller farms (OR=2.6, 95% CI: 1.4, 4.6). Season was associated with Salmonella shedding in cattle, and compared to the winter period, summer had the highest odds for shedding (OR=2.4, 95% CI: 1.5, 3.7), followed by fall (OR=1.9, 95% CI: 1.2, 3.1) and spring (OR=1.8, 95% CI: 1.2, 2.6). Environmental samples significantly more likely to be Salmonella-positive (compared to bulk tank milk) included, in descending order, samples from sick pens (OR=7.4, 95% CI: 3.4, 15.8), manure storage areas (OR=6.4, 95% CI: 3.5, 11.7), maternity pens (OR=4.2, 95% CI: 2.2, 8.1), haircoats of cows due to be culled (OR=3.9, 95% CI: 2.2, 7.7), milk filters (OR=3.3, 95% CI: 1.8, 6.0), cow waterers (OR=2.8, 95% CI: 1.4, 5.7), calf pens (OR=2.7, 95% CI: 1.3, 5.3), and bird droppings from cow housing (OR=2.4, 95% CI: 1.3, 4.4). Parity, stage of lactation, and calf age were not associated with Salmonella shedding.
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Herd size is frequently studied as a risk factor for swine diseases, yet the biological rationale for a reported association with herd size (whether positive or negative) is rarely adequately discussed in published epidemiological studies. Biologically plausible reasons for a positive association between herd size and disease include a greater risk of introduction of pathogens from outside the herd, greater risk of transmission of pathogens within and among herds when the herd is large, and effects of management and environmental factors that are related to herd size. However, compared with owners of small herds, owners of large herds might more frequently adopt management and housing practices that mitigate this theoretically increased risk. We used studies of pleuritis, pneumonia and pseudorabies to describe the epidemiological issues involved in evaluations of the relationship between management factors, herd size and disease. In future studies, we recommend that (i) herd size be measured in a way that best characterizes the true population at risk; (ii) studies that evaluate management-related risk factors should account for herd size wherever possible; (iii) population-based studies of the interrelationships among management factors and between management factors, herd size, herd density and pig density be done; (iv) likely biological reasons for any herd-size effect be postulated; and (v) the distribution of herd sizes in the source population and the study sample be described.Animal Health Research Reviews 07/2002; 3(1):43-55.
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In 1996, data on management practices used on US dairy operations were collected and analyzed for association with fecal shedding of Salmonella by dairy cows. A total of 4299 fecal samples from 91 herds was cultured for Salmonella isolation. Herd-size (adjusted odds ratios (OR) = 5.8, 95% CI 1.1, 31.3), region (OR = 5.7, CI 1.4, 23.5), use of flush water systems (OR = 3.5, CI 0.9, 14.7), and feeding brewers' products to lactating cows (OR = 3.4, CI 0.9, 12.9) were identified as the most important predictive risk factors. The population attributable risks (PARs) for herd-size, region, flush water system, and feeding brewers' products to lactating cows were 0.76, 0.46, 0.37, and 0.42, respectively. The estimated PAR for all four risk factors combined was 0.95. The effects of these factors need to be more-closely evaluated in more-controlled studies, in order to develop intervention programs that reduce Salmonella shedding.Preventive Veterinary Medicine 03/2000; 43(3):177-94. · 2.39 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The primary objective was to compare reported antimicrobial usage between conventional and organic dairy farms. A secondary objective was to contrast selected management characteristics of conventional and organic dairy herds. A questionnaire was administered on site to selected dairy farmers located in Michigan, Minnesota, New York, and Wisconsin. Organic herds (n = 32) were smaller and produced less milk than conventional herds (n = 99). Lactating cows in organic dairies were more likely to be housed in tie stalls, whereas most conventional dairies housed cows in free stalls and milked in a parlor. Total mixed rations and purchased feeds were used on more conventional dairy farms compared with organic dairy farms. Conventional dairy producers were more likely to use advice from veterinarians for recommendations of treatment, and organic dairy producers were more likely to rely on advice from other farmers. Based on recall of antibiotic usage in the previous 60 d, 5.1, 84.9, 9.1, and 0.9% of farmers with conventional herds reported treatment of none, 1 to 10%, 11 to 25%, and >25% of milk cows, respectively. Most organic farmers (90.6%) reported no antibiotic treatments of milk cows, whereas 9.4% reported treating 1 to 10% of milk cows. Ceftiofur was the most commonly reported antibiotic for both farm types. Milk replacer containing antibiotics was reportedly used on 49.5% of conventional herds but only on one organic herd (3.1%). Antibiotics were used in heifer calves on 74.7% of conventional herds versus 21.9% of organic herds. Antibiotics to treat mastitis were used on 79.8% of conventional herds but on none of the organic herds. Most organic farms were in compliance with standards in advance of implementation of regulations.Journal of Dairy Science 02/2004; 87(1):191-201. · 2.57 Impact Factor