Efficacy and safety of eszopiclone across 6-weeks of treatment for primary insomnia.
ABSTRACT Eszopiclone is a new, single-isomer, non-benzodiazepine, cyclopyrrolone agent under investigation for the treatment of insomnia. The present study was a randomized, double-blind, multicenter, placebo-controlled trial conducted to assess the efficacy and safety of eszopiclone in adults with chronic primary insomnia.
Patients (n = 308) were randomized to receive placebo or eszopiclone (2 mg or 3 mg) for 44 consecutive nights, followed by 2 nights of single-blind placebo. Efficacy was evaluated with polysomnography (Nights 1, 15 and 29) and patient-reports (Nights 1, 15, 29 and 43/44). Next-day residual effects were evaluated using the Digit-Symbol Substitution Test (DSST).
Eszopiclone 3 mg had significantly less time to sleep onset (p < or = 0.0001), more total sleep time and sleep efficiency (p < or = 0.0001), better sleep maintenance (p < or = 0.01), and enhanced quality and depth of sleep (p < 0.05) across the double-blind period compared with placebo. Eszopiclone 2 mg had significantly less time to sleep onset (p < or = 0.001), more total sleep time (p < or = 0.01) and sleep efficiency (p < or = 0.001), and enhanced quality and depth of sleep (p < 0.05) compared with placebo, but did not significantly improve sleep maintenance. There was no evidence of tolerance or rebound insomnia after therapy discontinuation. Median DSST scores showed no decrement in psychomotor performance relative to baseline and did not differ from placebo in either eszopiclone group. Treatment was well tolerated; the most common adverse event related to eszopiclone was unpleasant taste.
Patients treated with nightly eszopiclone 3 mg had better polysomnographic (through Night 29) and patient-reported measures (through Night 44) of sleep over the 6-week trial. There was no evidence of tolerance or rebound insomnia and no detrimental effects on next-day psychomotor performance using the DSST.
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ABSTRACT: The main objective of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetic characters of eszopiclone (CAS: 138729-47-2) after single and multiple-dose oral administration in healthy adult Chinese volunteers.In single-dose study, 12 subjects were given oral administrations of 1.5, 3 and 6 mg eszopiclone in an open-label, randomized, crossover fashion. In multiple-dose study, 8 subjects were given 3 mg eszopiclone once daily consecutively for 7 days. Blood samples were collected over 24 h and plasma eszopiclone were determined using a validated liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) assay. The safety and tolerability of eszopiclone was evaluated by adverse events recording, physical examination, laboratory testing, vital signs, and 12-lead ECG findings.The main pharmacokinetic parameters of eszopiclone after single-dose administration were as follows: doses of 1.5, 3 and 6 mg; Cmax of 18.08±4.65, 38.29±15.41 and 76.38±23.34 ng/ml; Tmax of 0.94±0.39, 1.04±0.63 and 1.08±0.51 h; AUC0-24 of 110.90±23.06, 227.36±62.41 and 504.10±140.13 ng*h/ml; elimination half-lives of 5.84±1.03, 5.53±1.91 and 6.17±1.23 h. After multiple-dose administration, the steady-state levels of eszopiclone were achieved by the 4th day, and the main pharmacokinetic parameters were Css_max at 33.43±5.63 ng/ml and AUCss (0-24) at 263.30±51.21 ng*h/ml. The most common adverse event was bitter or abnormal taste. All the adverse events were judged as mild to moderate and resolved without any medication.The pharmacokinetic character of eszopiclone is linear and dose-proportional over the range of 1.5-6 mg. The systemic exposure does not accumulate with once-daily administrations. Eszopiclone appears to have good safety and is well tolerated.Arzneimittel-Forschung 10/2012; DOI:10.1055/s-0032-1327570 · 0.51 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A b s t r a c t A b s t r a c t A b s t r a c t A b s t r a c t A b s t r a c t The purpose of this updating manuscript is to briefly describe the profile, clinical use and indication of some of the most used sedative and hypnotic compounds. About 2/3 of all hypnotic prescriptions go to chronic use. Benzodiazepines are among the most prescribed drugs worldwide. Women, elderly, psychiatric and medical disease patients are among chronic users of hypnotics. Zolpidem is now the most prescribed hypnotic in most countries. It appears to be safer, compared to benzodazepines, and might be an option for long-term and controlled use ("as needed"). Sedative antidepressants are also among the most prescribed drug for sedation in insomnia patients in USA and UK. Sedative effect and use of trazodone, mirtazapine, doxepine, amitryptilin are described. The authors also discuss the use of melatonin and its sleep properties, and the rational use of sedative antipsychotics for chronic insomnia, particularly in psychiatric patients. Finally, some phytotherapeutic compounds are mentioned.