Clarification of SRNT workgroup guidelines for measures in clinical trials of smoking cessation therapies

University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States
Nicotine & Tobacco Research (Impact Factor: 2.81). 11/2004; 6(5):863-4. DOI: 10.1080/1462220042000282564
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives. We compared participant characteristics and abstinence outcomes of smokers who chose in-person or telephone tobacco dependence treatment. Methods. We provided the same treatment content to 7267 smokers in Arkansas between 2005 and 2008 who self-selected treatment modality; examined demographic, clinical, environmental, and treatment utilization differences between modalities; and modeled outcomes and participants' choice of modality with logistic regression. Results. At end of treatment, in-person participants were more likely to be abstinent than telephone participants, and smokers of higher socioeconomic status (SES) were more likely to be abstinent with telephone treatment than lower-SES smokers. Long term, modality had no effect on treatment outcomes. Higher-SES smokers and smokers exposed to more treatment content were more likely to achieve long-term abstinence, regardless of modality. Men and more recalcitrant smokers were more likely to choose in-person treatment; lower-SES, ethnic minority, and more dependent smokers were more likely to choose telephone treatment. Conclusions. Treatment modality attracts different groups of smokers, but has no effect on long-term abstinence. Multiple treatment modalities are needed to provide treatment to a heterogeneous population of smokers. More research is needed to understand the influences on treatment choice. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print June 13, 2013: e1-e9. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2012.301144).
    American Journal of Public Health 06/2013; DOI:10.2105/AJPH.2012.301144 · 4.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We examined socioeconomic disparities in a community-based tobacco dependence treatment program. We provided cognitive-behavioral treatment and nicotine patches to 2739 smokers. We examined treatment use, clinical and environmental, and treatment outcome differences by socioeconomic status (SES). We used logistic regressions to model end-of-treatment and 3- and 6-month treatment outcomes. The probability of abstinence 3 months after treatment was 55% greater for the highest-SES than for the lowest-SES (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.55; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03, 2.33) smokers and increased to 2.5 times greater for the highest-SES than for the lowest-SES smokers 6 months after treatment (AOR = 2.47; 95% CI = 1.62, 3.77). Lower-SES participants received less treatment content and had fewer resources and environmental supports to manage a greater number of clinical and environmental challenges to abstinence. Targets for enhancing therapeutic approaches for lower socioeconomic groups should include efforts to ensure that lower-SES groups receive more treatment content, strategies to address specific clinical and environmental challenges associated with treatment outcomes for lower-SES smokers (i.e., higher dependence and stress levels and exposure to other smokers), and strategies to provide longer-term support.
    American Journal of Public Health 03/2012; 102(3):e8-16. DOI:10.2105/AJPH.2011.300519 · 4.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Smokers attend preferentially to cigarettes and other smoking-related cues in the environment, in what is known as an attentional bias. There is evidence that attentional bias may contribute to craving and failure to stop smoking. Attentional retraining procedures have been used in laboratory studies to train smokers to reduce attentional bias, although these procedures have not been applied in smoking cessation programmes. This trial will examine the efficacy of multiple sessions of attentional retraining on attentional bias, craving, and abstinence in smokers attempting cessation. This is a double-blind randomised controlled trial. Adult smokers attending a 7-session weekly stop smoking clinic will be randomised to either a modified visual probe task with attentional retraining or placebo training. Training will start 1 week prior to quit day and be given weekly for 5 sessions. Both groups will receive 21 mg transdermal nicotine patches for 8-12 weeks and withdrawal-orientated behavioural support for 7 sessions. Primary outcome measures are the change in attentional bias reaction time and urge to smoke on the Mood and Physical Symptoms Scale at 4 weeks post-quit. Secondary outcome measures include differences in withdrawal, time to first lapse and prolonged abstinence at 4 weeks post-quit, which will be biochemically validated at each clinic visit. Follow-up will take place at 8 weeks, 3 months and 6 months post-quit. This is the first randomised controlled trial of attentional retraining in smokers attempting cessation. This trial could provide proof of principle for a treatment aimed at a fundamental cause of addiction.Trial registration: Current Controlled Trials: ISRCTN54375405.
    BMC Public Health 12/2013; 13(1):1176. DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-13-1176 · 2.32 Impact Factor