Kinetic and thermodynamic studies on ligand substitution reactions and base-on/base-off equilibria of cyanoimidazolylcobamide, a vitamin B12 analog with an imidazole axial nucleoside.
ABSTRACT Ligand substitution reactions of the vitamin B12 analog cyanoimidazolylcobamide, CN(Im)Cbl, with cyanide were studied. Cyanide substitutes imidazole (Im) in the alpha-position more slowly than it substitutes dimethylbenzimidazole in cyanocobalamin (vitamin B12). The kinetics of the displacement of Im by CN- showed saturation behaviour at high cyanide concentration; the limiting rate constant was found to be 0.0264 s(-1) at 25 degrees C and is characterized by the activation parameters: DeltaH(not =) = 111 +/- 2 kJ mol(-1), DeltaS(not =) = +97 +/- 6 J K(-1) mol(-1), and DeltaV(not =) = +9.3 +/- 0.3 cm3 mol(-1). These parameters are interpreted in terms of an I(d) mechanism. The equilibrium constant for the reaction of CN(Im)Cbl with CN- was found to be 861 +/- 75 M(-1), which is significantly less than that obtained for the reaction of cyanocobalamin with CN- (viz. 10(4) M(-1)). pKbase-off for the base-on/base-off equilibrium was determined spectrophotometrically and found to be 0.99 +/- 0.05, which is about 0.9 pH units higher than that obtained previously in the case of cyanocobalamin. In addition, the kinetics of the base-on/base-off reaction was studied using a pH-jump technique and the data obtained revealed evidence for an acid catalyzed reaction path. The results obtained in this study are discussed in reference to those reported previously for cyanocobalamin.
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ABSTRACT: It was demonstrated by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy that organic radical intermediates disappeared and cob(II)alamin accumulated upon suicide inactivation of diol dehydratase by 2-methyl-1,2-propanediol. The resulting EPR spectra showed that the eight hyperfine lines due to the divalent cobalt atom of cob(II)alamin further split into triplets by the superhyperfine coupling to the 14N nucleus. Essentially the same superhyperfine splitting of the octet into triplets was observed with [14N]- and [15N]apoenzyme. When the adenosyl form of [14N2]- and [15N2]imidazolyl analogues of the coenzyme [Toraya, T., and Ishida, A. (1991) J. Biol. Chem. 266, 5430-5437] was used with unlabeled apoenzyme, the octet showed superhyperfine splitting into triplets and doublets, respectively. Therefore, it was concluded that cobalamin is bound to this enzyme with 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole coordinating to the cobalt atom. This conclusion is consistent with the fact that the consensus sequence forming part of a cobalamin-binding motif, conserved in methionine synthase and some of the other cobalamin enzymes, was not found in the deduced amino acid sequences of the subunits of diol dehydratase. Adenosylcobinamide methyl phosphate, a coenzyme analogue lacking the nucleotide moiety, underwent cleavage of the cobalt-carbon bond upon binding to the enzyme in the presence of substrate, forming a cob(II)inamide derivative without nitrogenous base coordination, as judged by EPR and optical spectroscopy. Therefore, this analogue may be a useful probe for determining whether the replacement of the 5, 6-dimethylbenzimidazole ligand by a histidine residue takes place upon binding of cobalamin to proteins.Biochemistry 04/1998; 37(14):4799-803. · 3.38 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy of glutamate mutase from Clostridium cochlearium was performed in order to test the idea, that a histidine residue of component S replaces the dimethylbenzimidazole ligand of the Co-atom during binding of coenzyme B12 to the enzyme. The shapes and the superhyperfine splitting of the gz-lines of the Co(II) EPR spectra were used as indicators of the interaction of the axial base nitrogen with the Co-atom. A mixture of completely 15N-labelled component S, unlabelled component E, coenzyme B12 and glutamate gave slightly sharper gz-lines than that with unlabelled component S. A more dramatic change was observed in the Co(II) spectrum of the inactivated enzyme containing tightly bound cob(II)alamin, in which unlabelled component S caused a threefold superhyperfine-splitting of the gz-line, whereas the 15N-labelled protein only caused a twofold splitting, as expected for a direct interaction of a nitrogen of the enzyme with the Co-atom. By using a sample of 15N-labelled component S, in which only the histidines were 14N-labelled, the EPR spectra showed no difference to those with unlabelled component S. The experiments indeed demonstrate a replacement of the dimethylbenzimidazole ligand in coenzyme B12 by a histidine when bound to glutamate mutase. The most likely candidate is H16, which is conserved among the carbon skeleton rearranging mutases and methionine synthase.FEBS Letters 01/1995; 369(2):252-254. · 3.58 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Theoretical studies (J. Inorg. Biochem. 2001, 83, 121) of the involvement of the bulky 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole (Dmbz) ligand of coenzyme B(12) (5'-deoxyadenosylcobalamin, AdoCbl) in the mechanism of activation of the carbon-cobalt bond of the coenzyme for homolytic cleavage by AdoCbl-dependent enzymes (the "mechanochemical triggering" mechanisms) have shown that a purely steric, ground-state mechanism can supply only a few kilocalories per mole (of the observed 13-16 kcal mol(-1)) of activation, but that an electronic mechanism, operating to stabilize the transition state, can explain all of the observed catalytic effect. To address these mechanisms experimentally, analogues of AdoCbl in which the Dmbz ligand is replaced by benzimidazole (Ado(Bzim)Cbl) or by imidazole (Ado(Im)Cbl) have been prepared and characterized. Both of these analogues support turnover in the AdoCbl-dependent ribonucleoside triphosphate reductase (RTPR) from Lactobacillus leichmannii at 100% of the activity of AdoCbl itself, but the Ado(Im)Cbl analogue has a significantly higher K(m). 5'-Deoxyadenosylcobinamide, the analogue in which the axial nucleotide has been chemically removed, in contrast, is inactive in the spectrophotometric assay, which indicates that it has at most 1% of the activity of AdoCbl. Stopped-flow spectrophotometric measurements of the formation of cob(II)alamin at the enzyme active site show that RTPR binds Ado(Bzim)Cbl slightly more weakly than it does AdoCbl, but binds Ado(Im)Cbl 8-fold more weakly. While the equilibrium constant for cob(II)alamin formation is nearly the same for Ado(Bzim)Cbl and AdoCbl, it is 5-fold smaller for Ado(Im)Cbl. Finally, the forward rate constant for enzyme-induced Co-C bond homolysis was about the same for Ado(Bzim)Cbl and for AdoCbl but was 17-fold smaller for Ado(Im)Cbl. These results are consistent with a small contribution from ground-state mechanochemical triggering, but they do not in themselves rule out transition-state mechanical triggering.Inorganic Chemistry 12/2001; 40(23):5942-7. · 4.59 Impact Factor