Src homology 2 domain-containing Inositol -5-phosphatase 1(SHIP1) negatively regulates TLR4-mediated LPS response primarily through a phosphatase activity- and PI-3K-independent mechanism
ABSTRACT Src homology 2 (SH2) domain-containing inositol-5-phosphatase 1 (SHIP1) plays important roles in negatively regulating the activation of immune cells primarily via the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI-3K) pathway by catalyzing the PI-3K product PtdIns-3,4,5P3 (phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-triphosphate) into PtdIns-3,4P2. However, the role of SHIP1 in Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-mediated lipopolysaccharide (LPS) response remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that SHIP1 negatively regulates LPS-induced inflammatory response via both phosphatase activity-dependent and -independent mechanisms in macrophages. SHIP1 becomes tyrosine phosphorylated and up-regulated upon LPS stimulation in RAW264.7 macrophages. SHIP1-specific RNA-interfering and SHIP1 overexpression experiments demonstrate that SHIP1 inhibits LPS-induced tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) production by negatively regulating the LPS-induced combination between TLR4 and myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88); activation of Ras (p21(ras) protein), PI-3K, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), p38, and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK); and degradation of IkappaB-alpha. SHIP1 also significantly inhibits LPS-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation in TLR4-reconstitited COS7 cells. Although SHIP1-mediated inhibition of PI-3K is dependent on its phosphatase activity, phosphatase activity-disrupted mutant SHIP1 remains inhibitory to LPS-induced TNF-alpha production. Neither disrupting phosphatase activity nor using the PI-3K pathway inhibitor LY294002 or wortmannin could significantly block SHIP1-mediated inhibition of LPS-induced ERK1/2, p38, and JNK activation and TNF-alpha production, demonstrating that SHIP1 inhibits LPS-induced activation of MAPKs and cytokine production primarily by a phosphatase activity- and PI-3K-independent mechanism.
- SourceAvailable from: Dinesh S Rao
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- "Recent work has revealed that IL-17-producing inflammatory CD4 + T cells, or T helper 17 (Th17) cells, are critical mediators of chronic, autoimmune inflammation (Bettelli et al., 2006; Ivanov et al., 2006). Th17 cell development is driven by cytokines produced primarily by cells of the innate immune system, including transforming growth factor-b (TGF-b), interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-23, and IL-1 (Bettelli et al., 2006; Langrish et al., 2005; Veldhoen et al., 2006). The impact of Th17 cells was first made evident in mice, where overexpression of IL-17 led to increased granulopoiesis in vivo (Schwarzenberger et al., 1998). "
ABSTRACT: Mammalian noncoding microRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of gene regulators that have been linked to immune system function. Here, we have investigated the role of miR-155 during an autoimmune inflammatory disease. Consistent with a positive role for miR-155 in mediating inflammatory responses, Mir155(-/-) mice were highly resistant to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). miR-155 functions in the hematopoietic compartment to promote the development of inflammatory T cells including the T helper 17 (Th17) cell and Th1 cell subsets. Furthermore, the major contribution of miR-155 to EAE was CD4(+) T cell intrinsic, whereas miR-155 was also required for optimum dendritic cell production of cytokines that promoted Th17 cell formation. Our study shows that one aspect of miR-155 function is the promotion of T cell-dependent tissue inflammation, suggesting that miR-155 might be a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of autoimmune disorders.Immunity 09/2010; 33(4):607-19. DOI:10.1016/j.immuni.2010.09.009 · 19.75 Impact Factor
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- "The present findings suggest that SHIP1, an inositol 5′ phosphatase which is similarly induced by LPS in RAW264.7 cells (An et al., 2005), can also dephosphorylate pAEA, as suggested by the reduced rate of this reaction in brain extracts from SHIP1 −/− mice. Alternatively, the increase in pAEA levels in the absence of phosphatases or following their blockade by NaVO 3 could be due to lack of dephosphorylation of the PLC involved in generating pAEA from NAPE. "
ABSTRACT: Endocannabinoids, including anandamide (arachidonoyl ethanolamide) have been implicated in the regulation of a growing number of physiological and pathological processes. Anandamide can be generated from its membrane phospholipid precursor N-arachidonoyl phosphatidylethanolamine (NAPE) through hydrolysis by a phospholipase D (NAPE-PLD). Recent evidence indicates, however, the existence of two additional, parallel pathways. One involves the sequential deacylation of NAPE by alpha,beta-hydrolase 4 (Abhd4) and the subsequent cleavage of glycerophosphate to yield anandamide, and the other one proceeds through phospholipase C-mediated hydrolysis of NAPE to yield phosphoanandamide, which is then dephosphorylated by phosphatases, including the tyrosine phosphatase PTPN22 and the inositol 5' phosphatase SHIP1. Conversion of synthetic NAPE to AEA by brain homogenates from wild-type and NAPE-PLD(-/-) mice can proceed through both the PLC/phosphatase and Abdh4 pathways, with the former being dominant at shorter (<10 min) and the latter at longer (60 min) incubations. In macrophages, the endotoxin-induced synthesis of anandamide proceeds uniquely through the phospholipase C/phosphatase pathway.Neuropharmacology 02/2008; 54(1):1-7. DOI:10.1016/j.neuropharm.2007.05.020 · 4.82 Impact Factor
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- "Protein concentrations of the extracts were measured with BCA assay (Pierce). 50 mg of protein was either used for immunoprecipitation, or loaded and subjected to SDS-PAGE, transferred onto nitrocellulose membranes, and then blotted as described previously (An et al., 2005). "
ABSTRACT: The Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) and TLR4-signaling pathway that involves the adaptor protein TRIF activates type I interferon (IFN) and proinflammatory cytokine expression. Little is known about how TRIF pathway-dependent gene expression is regulated. SH2-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase 2 (SHP-2) is a widely expressed cytoplasmic tyrosine phosphatase. Here we demonstrate that SHP-2 negatively regulated TLR4- and TLR3-activated IFN-beta production. SHP-2 inhibited TLR3-activated but not TLR2-, TLR7-, and TLR9-activated proinflammatory cytokine IL-6 and TNF-alpha production. SHP-2 inhibited poly(I:C)-induced cytokine production by a phosphatase activity-independent mechanism. C-terminal domain of SHP-2 directly bound TANK binding kinase (TBK1) by interacting with the kinase domain of TBK1. SHP-2 deficiency increased TBK1-activated IFN-beta and TNF-alpha expression. TBK1 knockdown inhibited poly(I:C)-induced IL-6 production in SHP-2-deficient cells. SHP-2 also inhibited poly(I:C)-induced activation of MAP kinase pathways. These results demonstrate that SHP-2 specifically negatively regulate TRIF-mediated gene expression in TLR signaling, partially through inhibiting TBK1-activated signal transduction.Immunity 01/2007; 25(6):919-28. DOI:10.1016/j.immuni.2006.10.014 · 19.75 Impact Factor