Natural resistance to liver cold ischemia-reperfusion injury associated with the hibernation phenotype.

Department of Comparative Biosciences, University of Wisconsin, 2015 Linden Dr., Madison WI 53706, USA.
AJP Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology (Impact Factor: 3.74). 04/2005; 288(3):G473-80. DOI: 10.1152/ajpgi.00223.2004
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The success of liver grafts is currently limited by the length of time organs are cold preserved before transplant. Novel insights to improve viability of cold-stored organs may emerge from studies with animals that naturally experience low body temperatures (T(b)) for extended periods. In this study, we tested whether livers from hibernating ground squirrels tolerate cold ischemia-warm reperfusion (cold I/R) for longer times and with better quality than livers from rats or summer squirrels. Hibernators were used when torpid (T(b) < 10 degrees C) or aroused (T(b) = 37 degrees C). Livers were stored at 4 degrees C in University of Wisconsin solution for 0-72 h and then reperfused with 37 degrees C buffer in vitro. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release after 60 min was increased 37-fold in rat livers after 72 h cold I/R but only 10-fold in summer livers and approximately three- to sixfold in torpid and aroused hibernator livers, despite twofold higher total LDH content in livers from hibernators compared with rats or summer squirrels. Reperfusion for up to 240 min had the least effect on LDH release in livers from hibernators and the greatest effect in rats. Compared with rats or summer squirrels, livers from hibernators after 72 h cold I/R showed better maintenance of mitochondrial respiration, bile production, and sinusoidal lining cell viability, as well as lower vascular resistance and Kupffer cell phagocytosis. These results demonstrate that the hibernation phenotype in ground squirrels confers superior resistance to liver cold I/R injury compared with rats and summer squirrels. Because hibernation-induced protection is not dependent on animals being in the torpid state, the mechanisms responsible for this effect may provide new strategies for liver preservation in humans.

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    ABSTRACT: Cardiac arrest (CA) and hemorrhagic shock (HS) are two clinically relevant situations where the body undergoes global ischemia as blood pressure drops below the threshold necessary for adequate organ perfusion. Resistance to ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is a characteristic of hibernating mammals. The present study sought to determine if arctic ground squirrels (AGS) are protected from systemic inflammation and multi organ damage after CA- or HS-induced global I/R and if, for HS, this protection is dependent upon their hibernation season. For CA, rats and summer euthermic AGS (AGS-EU) were asphyxiated for 8 min, inducing CA. For HS, rats, AGS-EU, and winter interbout arousal AGS (AGS-IBA) were subject to HS by withdrawing blood to a mean arterial pressure of 35 mmHg and maintaining that pressure for 20 min before reperfusion with Ringers. For both I/R models, body temperature (Tb) was kept at 36.5-37.5°C. After reperfusion, animals were monitored for seven days (CA) or 3 hrs (HS) then tissues and blood were collected for histopathology, clinical chemistries, and cytokine level analysis (HS only). For the HS studies, additional groups of rats and AGS were monitored for three days after HS to access survival and physiological impairment. Rats had increased serum markers of liver damage one hour after CA while AGS did not. For HS, AGS survived 72 hours after I/R whereas rats did not survive overnight. Additionally, only rats displayed an inflammatory response after HS. AGS maintained a positive base excess, whereas the base excess in rats was negative during and after hemorrhage. Regardless of season, AGS are resistant to organ damage, systemic inflammation, and multi organ damage after systemic I/R and this resistance is not dependent on their ability to become decrease Tb during insult but may stem from an altered acid/base and metabolic response during I/R.
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to determine how expression and functionality of the cytoskeletal linker protein moesin is involved in hepatic hypothermic preservation injury. Mouse livers were cold stored in University of Wisconsin (UW) solution and reperfused on an Isolated Perfused Liver (IPL) device for one hour. Human hepatocytes (HepG2) and human or murine Sinusoidal Endothelial Cells (SECs) were cold stored and rewarmed to induce hypothermic preservation injury. The cells were transfected with: wild type moesin, an siRNA duplex specific for moesin, and the moesin mutants T558D and T558A. Tissue and cell moesin expression and its binding to actin were determined by western blot. Liver IPL functional outcomes deteriorated proportional to the length of cold storage, which correlated with moesin disassociation from the actin cytoskeleton. Cell viability (LDH and WST-8) in the cell models progressively declined with increasing preservation time, which also correlated with moesin disassociation. Transfection of a moesin containing plasmid or an siRNA duplex specific for moesin into HepG2 cells resulted in increased and decreased moesin expression, respectively. Overexpression of moesin protected while moesin knock-down potentiated preservation injury in the HepG2 cell model. Hepatocytes expressing the T558A (inactive) and T558D (active) moesin binding mutants demonstrated significantly more and less preservation injury, respectively. Cold storage time dependently caused hepatocyte detachment from the matrix and cell death, which was prevented by the T558D active moesin mutation. In conclusion, moesin is causally involved in hypothermic liver cell preservation injury through control of its active binding molecular functionality.
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    ABSTRACT: Hemorrhagic shock (HS) following trauma is a leading cause of death among persons under the age of 40. During HS the body undergoes systemic warm ischemia followed by reperfusion during medical intervention. Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) results in a disruption of cellular metabolic processes that ultimately lead to tissue and organ dysfunction or failure. Resistance to I/R injury is a characteristic of hibernating mammals. The present study sought to identify circulating metabolites in the rat as biomarkers for metabolic alterations associated with poor outcome after HS. Arctic ground squirrels (AGS), a hibernating species that resists I/R injury independent of decreased body temperature (warm I/R), was used as a negative control.
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