This study sought to determine the degree to which Medicaid eligibility categories modify disparities between black and white youths in the prevalence of psychotropic medication.
Computerized claims for 189,486 youths aged two to 19 years who were continuously enrolled in a mid-Atlantic state Medicaid program for the year 2000 were analyzed to determine population-based annual prevalence of psychotropic medication by race or ethnicity and by whether the youths were eligible for Medicaid for reasons of family income, disability, or foster care placement. Logistic regression was used to assess the interaction of eligibility category and race.
The mean annual prevalence of psychotropic medication for the population was 9.9 percent. The prevalence was 2.17 times higher for white youths than for black youths (16.5 percent compared with 7.6 percent). However, within eligibility categories, the white-to-black disparity was 3.8 among youths who were eligible for Medicaid because their family income was below the federal poverty level and 3.2 for youths enrolled in the State Children's Health Insurance Program.
Medicaid eligibility categories had a profound impact on the racial disparity associated with the prevalence of psychotropic medications for youths. Eligibility category should be taken into account when ascertaining the role of access, undertreatment, and culture in disparities in mental health treatment.
"Studies based on Medicaid claims have not been entirely consistent in demonstrating differences between foster care, SSI and low-income groups, possibly because of state-level variation in eligibility determinations, the extent of managed care penetration in Medicaid service delivery, or assessment of mental health need itself (Raghavan et al. 2010). According to Medicaid data from one mid-Atlantic state, rates of mental disorder and psychiatric medication were higher among youth in foster care than either of the other eligibility statuses (dosReis et al. 2001; Zito et al. 2005). However, other studies have shown greater similarities between foster care and SSI groups. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Using data from the Client/Patient Sample Survey,
a nationally representative study of outpatient mental health service utilization, the prevalence and correlates of psychotropic medication receipt for youth who live with families and in foster care are compared. The medication rate is similar for both groups, with slightly more than one-third of youth treated with medication. Additionally, when medication is prescribed, it is the sole intervention provided for close to one half of each group, and the distribution of other services received (such as clinical case management and collateral services) is similar, regardless of living situation. However, the predictors of medication use differ for the two groups. Among foster care youth, only presenting problems of depressed mood, being withdrawn, and suicidality significantly increase the odds of medication; among youth with families, sociodemographic characteristics (male gender), and a range of clinical factors (disruptive behavior disorder, presenting problems of hyperactivity and sleep disturbance, prior mental health service receipt, and inpatient or residential care referral sources) increase the likelihood of medication. The conclusion that distinct sets of factors predict medication for the two groups was reinforced by results of multivariate analyses; foster care status moderates the association between medication receipt and only one of the correlates examined (gender). Implications, limitations, and areas for future research are presented.
Journal of Child and Family Studies 05/2013; 23(4). DOI:10.1007/s10826-013-9885-0 · 1.42 Impact Factor
"Race/ethnicity was categorized as Caucasian, African American, or other. Consistent with other analyses of Medicaid-enrolled individuals (Zito et al. 2005), we categorized individuals into Medicaid eligibility categories according to whether they were Medicaid eligible as a result of general assistance , medical or mental health disability (e.g., Supplemental Security Income [SSI]), or income (e.g., Temporary Assistance to Needy Families [TANF]). Individuals were categorized as living in an urban area if their county of residence had a population density of greater than 1,000 individuals/square mile. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine whether Medicaid-enrolled depressed adults receive adequate treatment for depression and to identify the characteristics of those receiving inadequate treatment.
Claims data from a Medicaid-enrolled population in a large mid-Atlantic state between July 2006 and January 2008.
We examined rates and predictors of minimally adequate psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy among adults with a new depression treatment episode during the study period (N=1,098).
Many depressed adults received either minimally adequate psychotherapy or pharmacotherapy. Black individuals and individuals who began their depression treatment episode with an inpatient psychiatric stay for depression were markedly less likely to receive minimally adequate psychotherapy and more likely to receive inadequate treatment.
Racial minorities and individuals discharged from inpatient treatment for depression are at risk for receiving inadequate depression treatment.
Health Services Research 10/2009; 45(1):302-15. DOI:10.1111/j.1475-6773.2009.01060.x · 2.78 Impact Factor
"Race/ethnicity was categorized as Caucasian, African-American, Latino, or other. Consistent with other analyses of Medicaidenrolled populations (Zito et al., 2005), individuals were categorized into Medicaid eligibility categories according to whether their Medicaid eligibility resulted from medical or mental health disability (e.g. Supplemental Security Income (SSI) or Supplemental Security Income with Medicare (SSIM)), income (e.g. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Substance use disorders are chronic disorders with substantial public health significance, yet the treatment provided is often episodic despite ongoing need. Among the more severely ill individuals requiring detoxification or residential treatment, little empirical information is available about rates and predictors of subsequent engagement in necessary subsequent treatment.
Using administrative data from the largest Medicaid managed behavioral health organization in a large mid-Atlantic state, we used multivariate regression to examine rates and predictors of subsequent treatment engagement and retention following new episodes of detoxification or residential substance abuse treatment among 5670 Medicaid-enrolled adults during 2004-2006.
Slightly less than half (49%) of the sample received follow-up care within 30 days of discharge. Rates of follow-up were significantly higher in individuals with a serious mental illness, and significantly lower in African-American individuals, males, individuals with disabilities, and those who received detoxification without residential treatment. The mean duration of follow-up treatment was 84 days, and was longer among individuals with a serious mental illness and Caucasians. Even after controlling for individuals' sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, there was substantial variation in follow-up rates among discharging providers.
The relatively low rates of follow-up care and relatively brief duration of treatment for many of those who received such follow-up care are concerning in a population receiving substance abuse detoxification or residential treatment. The markedly lower rates among those receiving detoxification alone without subsequent residential treatment and among those without a comorbid serious mental illness suggest that efforts specifically targeting those individuals may be of particular benefit.
Drug and alcohol dependence 06/2009; 104(1-2):100-6. DOI:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2009.04.008 · 3.42 Impact Factor
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