Cap-independent translation of maize Hsp101.
ABSTRACT Maize embryonic axes contain stored mRNAs, some of which are able to undergo cap-independent translation initiation during germination. The Hsp101 mRNA, encoding a heat shock protein, is essential for thermo-tolerance induction and is present among the stored transcripts. This research aimed to investigate whether the Hsp101 transcript is IRES-driven regulated upon heat stress. Hsp101 transcribed either in vitro or in vivo was efficiently translated via a cap-independent mechanism. This was observed either in an animal in vitro translation system containing proteolytically cleaved eukaryotic initiation factor eIF4G or in a plant system lacking both eIF4E and eIFiso4E initiation factors. Deletion of the 5' untranslated region (UTR) from the Hsp101 mRNA abolished its cap-independent translation indicating that this nucleotide sequence is required to confer cap-independent initiation. Bicistronic constructs containing the Hsp101 mRNA 5'UTR in sense and anti-sense directions between two reporter genes were translated in both cap-independent systems. A similar bicistronic construct containing a viral internal ribosome entry site (IRES) element between the reporter genes was used as control. Internal translation of the second reporter gene was observed when the Hsp101 5'UTR was in the sense but not in the anti-sense orientation in the bicistronic construct. Taken together, these data suggest that the 5'UTR of maize Hsp101, a plant cellular mRNA, functions as an IRES-like element accounting for its cap-independent translation during heat stress.
- SourceAvailable from: Jean-Marcel Ribaut[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: HSP101 belongs to the ClpB protein subfamily whose members promote the renaturation of protein aggregates and are essential for the induction of thermotolerance. We found that maize HSP101 accumulated in mature kernels in the absence of heat stress. At optimal temperatures, HSP101 disappeared within the first 3 days after imbibition, although its levels increased in response to heat shock. In embryonic cells, HSP101 concentrated in the nucleus and in some nucleoli. Hsp101 maps near the umc132 and npi280 markers on chromosome 6. Five maize hsp101-m-::Mu1 alleles were isolated. Mutants were null for HSP101 and defective in both induced and basal thermotolerance. Moreover, during the first 3 days after imbibition, primary roots grew faster in the mutants at optimal temperature. Thus, HSP101 is a nucleus-localized protein that, in addition to its role in thermotolerance, negatively influences the growth rate of the primary root. HSP101 is dispensable for proper embryo and whole plant development in the absence of heat stress.The Plant Cell 08/2002; 14(7):1621-33. · 9.25 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The effect of heat shock on translational efficiency and message stability of a reporter mRNA was examined in carrot (Daucus carota). Heat shock of short duration resulted in an increase in protein yield, whereas repression was observed following extended exposure to the stress. Regardless of the duration of the heat shock, a loss in the function of the 5[prime] cap [m7G(5[prime])ppp(5[prime])N, where N represents any nucleotide] and the 3[prime] poly(A) tail, two regulatory elements that work in concert to establish an efficient level of translation, was observed. This apparent paradox was resolved upon examination of the mRNA half-life following thermal stress, in which increases up to 10-fold were observed. Message stability increased as a function of the severity of the heat shock so that following a mild to moderate stress the increase in message stability more than compensated for the reduction in cap and poly(A) tail function. Following a severe heat shock, the increased mRNA half-life was not sufficient to overcome the virtual loss in cap and poly(A) tail function. No stimulation of protein synthesis was observed following a heat shock in Chinese hamster ovary cells, data suggesting that the heat-induced increases in mRNA stability may be unique to the heat-shock response in plants.Plant physiology 09/1995; 108(4):1703-1713. · 6.56 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The cricket paralysis virus (CrPV), a member of the CrPV-like virus family, contains a single positive-stranded RNA genome that encodes two non-overlapping open reading frames separated by a short intergenic region (IGR). The CrPV IGR contains an internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) that directs the expression of structural proteins. Unlike previously described IRESs, the IGR IRES initiates translation by recruiting 80S ribosomes in the absence of initiator Met-tRNA(i) or any canonical initiation factors, from a GCU alanine codon located in the A-site of the ribosome. Here, we have shown that a variety of mutations, designed to disrupt individually three pseudoknot (PK) structures and alter highly conserved nucleotides among the CrPV-like viruses, inhibit IGR IRES-mediated translation. By separating the steps of translational initiation into ribosomal recruitment, ribosomal positioning and ribosomal translocation, we found that the mutated IRES elements could be grouped into two classes. One class, represented by mutations in PKII and PKIII, bound 40S subunits with significantly reduced affinity, suggesting that PKIII and PKII are involved in the initial recruitment of the ribosome. A second class of mutations, exemplified by alterations in PKI, did not affect 40S binding but altered the positioning of the ribosome on the IRES, indicating that PKI is involved in the correct positioning of IRES-associated ribosomes. These results suggest that the IGR IRES has distinct pseudoknot-like structures that make multiple contacts with the ribosome resulting in initiation factor-independent recruitment and correct positioning of the ribosome on the mRNA.Journal of Molecular Biology 01/2003; 324(5):889-902. · 3.91 Impact Factor