Article

Estimates of prevalence of hip dysplasia in Golden Retrievers and Rottweilers and the influence of bias on published prevalence figures

Department of Clinical Studies, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6010, USA.
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association (Impact Factor: 1.67). 03/2005; 226(3):387-92. DOI: 10.2460/javma.2005.226.387
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To estimate prevalence of canine hip dysplasia (CHD) in Golden Retrievers and Rottweilers and identify sources of bias in published reports.
Prospective study.
200 clinically normal Golden Retrievers and 140 clinically normal Rottweilers between 24 and 60 months of age referred for hip evaluation (group 1) and 93 clinically normal dogs evaluated for Orthopedic Foundation for Animals (OFA) hip certification (group 2).
Hip-extended pelvic radiographs from group 1 dogs were screened for CHD. Radiographs were evaluated twice; the first interpretation used an OFA-type subjective 7-point scoring system, and the second included the caudolateral curvilinear osteophyte as an additional sign of degenerative joint disease. The OFA submission rate of group 2 dogs was determined from the number of official reports returned from the OFA.
Prevalence of CHD in Golden Retrievers ranged from 53% to 73% and in Rottweilers ranged from 41% to 69%. Among dogs referred for OFA evaluation, radiographs from 49 (53%) were submitted to OFA. Of submitted radiographs, 45 (92%) were normal; of radiographs not submitted, 22 (50%) were normal. Radiographs with normal-appearing hips were 8.2 times as likely to be submitted to the OFA. Compared with Golden Retrievers, Rottweiler radiographs were significantly more likely to be submitted for OFA certification.
Prevalence of CHD in these 2 breeds may be much higher than previously reported in the United States. Results suggest substantial bias in the OFA database, which causes lower estimates of prevalence of CHD.

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    • "screening of radiographs with obviously dysplastic hips by veterinarians ; these radiographs may not be submitted to the OFA for evaluation (Paster et al., 2005). This would reduce the resultant frequencies of dysplastic individuals. "
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    ABSTRACT: The Orthopedic Foundation for Animals (OFA) maintains an on-line health pedigree database for inherited disorders of animals. With the American Kennel Club Canine Health Foundation, the OFA maintains the Canine Health Information Center (CHIC) for parent breed clubs to identify breed-specific required health tests. Analysis of the results of OFA evaluations in the hip and elbow registries show that selection based on phenotype improves conformation. Disorders with complex inheritance respond best to selection based on depth (ancestors) and breadth (siblings) of pedigree health test results. This information can be derived from vertical pedigrees generated on the OFA website.
    The Veterinary Journal 08/2011; 189(2):197-202. DOI:10.1016/j.tvjl.2011.06.019 · 2.17 Impact Factor
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    • "However, it has been suggested that the prevalence of CHD in many registries may not be truly representative of the general or breed specific populations because a relatively small proportion of the dogs are examined for CHD and also because dogs affected by severe forms of CHD often are not officially screened 0167-5877/$ – see front matter © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.prevetmed.2010.09.015 (Smith, 1997; Leppanen and Saloniemi, 1999; Paster et al., 2005; Genevois et al., 2008; Kaneene et al., 2009). Reported breed prevalences vary from 2% to 67%, and in general large and giant breeds have the highest prevalences although exeptions exist. "
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    ABSTRACT: The study-objective was to measure the effect of weight and growth related parameters on the risk of development of Canine Hip Dysplasia (CHD). The hypothesis was that heavy and fast growing dogs of large sized breeds were at increased risk of development of CHD compared to lighter and slower growing dogs. A prospective cohort study was conducted among dogs of four large breeds: Newfoundland (NF), Leonberger (LEO), Labrador retriever (LR), and Irish wolfhound (IW). The dogs were privately owned with individualized nutrition and environment, and they were followed from birth and throughout the growth period until the official screening for CHD was performed. The study sample consisted of 501 dogs from 103 litters, with the breed distribution 125 NF, 180 LEO, 133 LR, and 63 IW. Because the dogs were clustered in litters a multivariable random effects logistic regression model was used to assess statistically significant growth-related risk factors for CHD. The estimated incidence risk of CHD was 36% in NF, 25% in LEO, 20% in LR, and 10% in IW. Based upon the final multilevel model it appears that the odds of CHD among both LR and IW (odds ratio (OR) 0.22) are about one-fifth of the odds for NF. The odds for LEO (OR 0.60) are not significantly different from NF. There appeared to be an inverse relationship between body weight at 3 months of age and odds of CHD, with an OR of 0.89 (P=0.044). The degree of clustering at the litter-level was high (22.6%) and highly significant (P<0.001). Findings failed to support the hypothesis that heavy and fast growing dogs from four large sized breeds were at increased risk for development of CHD. There might be other unmeasured environmental risk factors for CHD in this cohort of dogs, although the contribution of the genetic variance to the litter-level clustering also needs further investigation.
    Preventive Veterinary Medicine 10/2010; 97(3-4):252-63. DOI:10.1016/j.prevetmed.2010.09.015 · 2.51 Impact Factor
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    • "The results presented in this study are in agreement with the results reported in the literature (Smith et al., 1992; 1996; Stur et al., 1996; Saunders et al., 1999; Paster et al., 2005; Keller, 2006; Verhoeven et al., 2007) It can be concluded that the assessment of radiographic quality, the assessment of morphological traits and the final scoring of hips on a standard ventrodorsal hip extended radiograph are extremely variable, ranging from total disagreement to nearly full agreement between individual observers and groups of observers. The reason for this high variability and inconsistency is most likely to be the fact that the system is not yet sufficiently standardized and strict. "
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