Estimates of prevalence of hip dysplasia in Golden Retrievers and Rottweilers and the influence of bias on published prevalence figures.
ABSTRACT To estimate prevalence of canine hip dysplasia (CHD) in Golden Retrievers and Rottweilers and identify sources of bias in published reports.
200 clinically normal Golden Retrievers and 140 clinically normal Rottweilers between 24 and 60 months of age referred for hip evaluation (group 1) and 93 clinically normal dogs evaluated for Orthopedic Foundation for Animals (OFA) hip certification (group 2).
Hip-extended pelvic radiographs from group 1 dogs were screened for CHD. Radiographs were evaluated twice; the first interpretation used an OFA-type subjective 7-point scoring system, and the second included the caudolateral curvilinear osteophyte as an additional sign of degenerative joint disease. The OFA submission rate of group 2 dogs was determined from the number of official reports returned from the OFA.
Prevalence of CHD in Golden Retrievers ranged from 53% to 73% and in Rottweilers ranged from 41% to 69%. Among dogs referred for OFA evaluation, radiographs from 49 (53%) were submitted to OFA. Of submitted radiographs, 45 (92%) were normal; of radiographs not submitted, 22 (50%) were normal. Radiographs with normal-appearing hips were 8.2 times as likely to be submitted to the OFA. Compared with Golden Retrievers, Rottweiler radiographs were significantly more likely to be submitted for OFA certification.
Prevalence of CHD in these 2 breeds may be much higher than previously reported in the United States. Results suggest substantial bias in the OFA database, which causes lower estimates of prevalence of CHD.
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ABSTRACT: Objective To propose a direct measure of subluxation of the femoral head (S) in the assessment of hip joint laxity and evaluate it for clinical use.Study DesignMethod comparison study.AnimalsDogs (n = 51).Methods Dogs were sedated or anesthetized for a dorsolateral subluxation (DLS) examination. Two sets of radiographs were acquired, 1 each by a different technologist. A calibrated measuring bar was included on the image at the height of the hip to assess magnification. The DLS was calculated for each hip and different persons unaware of these details measured the “S”-value. One person measured the S-value 3 times over 3 days. Box plots were used to determine a cut-off for the empiric (8 mm) and corrected (4 mm) S-value.ResultsOf 51 dogs, 33 were dysplastic based on a DLS score <55%. Magnification and body weight were strongly correlated (r = 0.4922, P = .0006). Both empiric and corrected S measurements showed good agreement with the DLS score (κ = 0.688 and κ = 0.681, respectively). The corrected S measurement produced more false negatives. Bland–Altman analysis showed interobserver and technician variance acceptable for clinical use (limits of agreement < ±3 mm). Intraobserver repeatability was acceptable for the right hip (95% of differences were ≤1.3 mm and 100% ≤ 1.9) but not for the left hip.Conclusion Using a cut-off value of 5 mm, the empirical S measurement can be used to exclude hip dysplasia in young dogs of various body proportions.Veterinary Surgery 01/2012; 41(1). · 0.99 Impact Factor
- Vlaams Diergeneeskundig Tijdschrift 01/2007; · 0.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The use of laboratory animals in pain research has powerfully contributed to our detailed understanding of the physiological mechanisms of pain. Animal models also represent an essential tool to screen and select novel drug molecules with potentially analgesic properties. Despite of the inevitable input of laboratory animal trials, recent studies have shown that animal pain models have repeatedly failed to predict clinical analgesic efficacy and adverse side effects of potential drug molecules in human pain patients. This paper provides a review of the laboratory animal models of OA, which have been developed to test efficacy of novel analgesics. The paper also presents spontaneous OA in canine veterinary patients, and methods to observe chronic pain in nonverbal dogs.Methods PubMed data base was searched as a reference list to locate most relevant articles. A number of 118 articles including 4 reviews were located. Web pages of 4 establishments and 2 private organizations were also accessed.ResultsThe clinical expression and pathogenesis of naturally occurring OA in dogs is considered an analogous disease that occurs in humans, including pain and lameness. OA may occur in any joint in dogs as well as in humans. Primary idiopathic OA in dogs is rare, but certain breeds may be predisposed to it. For the most part, canine OA is considered secondary to acquired or congenital musculoskeletal disorders. Concomitant factors, such as aging and obesity, likely accelerate progression. However, mechanical factors appear to predominate in the etiopathogenesis of canine spontaneous OA. Both subjective (validated questionnaire) and objective (gait analysis) tools are available to measure OA related pain in dogs. Information on the prevalence of canine OA is limited, but rough surveys suggest that 11 million dogs in the United States and 5 million in Europe could suffer from OA. Ethical considerations concerning the use of privately owned dogs can be resolved by a careful experimental design.Conclusions Canine spontaneous OA could serve as a translational animal model that would more closely mimick clinical OA related pain conditions in humans. Privately owned dogs would make a solution to fix the gap between animal pain models and clinical trials when testing potential analgesic drug molecules. Close interdisciplinary cooperation would guarantee that both scientific and ethical intentions would be achieved.ImplicationsThe predictability of translational pain research would improve by using privately owned dogs as chronic pain models when testing novel analgesics.Scandinavian Journal of Pain 04/2012; 3(2):84-89.