Coffee consumption and human health - beneficial or detrimental? Mechanisms for effects of coffee consumption on different risk factors for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Mol Nutr Food Res
Coffee is probably the most frequently ingested beverage worldwide. Especially Scandinavia has a high prevalence of coffee-drinkers, and they traditionally make their coffee by boiling ground coffee beans and water. Because of its consumption in most countries in the world, it is interesting, from both a public and a scientific perspective, to discuss its potential benefits or adverse aspects in relation to especially two main health problems, namely cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Epidemiological studies suggest that consumption of boiled coffee is associated with elevated risk for cardiovascular disease. This is mainly due to the two diterpenes identified in the lipid fraction of coffee grounds, cafestol and kahweol. These compounds promote increased plasma concentration of cholesterol in humans. Coffee is also a rich source of many other ingredients that may contribute to its biological activity, like heterocyclic compounds that exhibit strong antioxidant activity. Based on the literature reviewed, it is apparent that moderate daily filtered, coffee intake is not associated with any adverse effects on cardiovascular outcome. On the contrary, the data shows that coffee has a significant antioxidant activity, and may have an inverse association with the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus.
"Caffeine and chlorogenic acids have been extensively studied because they may reduce the risk of insulin resistance (Ranheim and Halvorsen 2005; and Van Dieren et al., 2009), and development and progression of atherosclerosis (Butt and Sultan, 2011) and they might decrease blood pressure (BP) (Yamaguchi et al., 2008; and Medina-Rem et al., 2010). We concluded from several studies that the diterpenoid alcohols cafestol and kahweol might cause deleterious effects of coffee (de Rooset al., 2001; Tofovic et al., 2002; Ranheim and Halvorsen, 2005; and Bonita et al., 2007), with the coffee polyphenols producing benefits (Bonita et al., 2007) and caffeine showing contrasting results, including increases in cholesterol (Tofovic et al., 2002). Finally, the results obtained by Sunil et al. (2012) suggest that all these components were active and the effects observed were cumulative. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Coffee beverage is a globally consumed and is prepared in a wide variety of formats. This study aimed at clarifies the effect of different preparations of coffee on body weight, serum uric acid and liver enzymes in experimental rats. Forty male albino rats (130±2.3 g) were divided into five equal groups (n=8), control, Turkish coffee medium roasting (TMC), Turkish coffee dark roasting (TDC), Nescafe (NesC), and Arabic coffee. Each group received 2 ml oral solution containing the dose of coffee (0, 4.3, 4.3, 14.3, 8.6 mg/100 g BW respectively). The experiment continued for thirty days, and at the end rats were anesthetized and killed for collection of blood samples that used for determination of uric acid, urea, ALT, and AST. Samples of liver were collected for histopathology. Results showed that rats fed different preparations of coffee had significantly smaller weight gain. Meanwhile, group fed Nescafe lost considerable amount of body weight. Different preparations of coffee especially Turkish coffee dark roasting, Nescafe and Arabic coffee reduced serum uric acid. TMC group had significantly (P<0.05) the lowest values of AST and ALT, then NesC group. In conclusion, moderate amounts of Nescafe have the most favorable effects on body weight, serum uric acid, and liver enzymes.
Merit Research Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences 07/2015; 3(7):292-300. · 0.68 Impact Factor
"Behavioral factors included coffee and tea consumption in addition to smoking, alcohol use, BMI, and physical activity. Coffee and green tea are abundant in antioxidant polyphenols, and the consumption of these beverages has been implicated as protective against various diseases [18,19]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A considerable interest has been drawn to potential protective effects of bilirubin against oxidative stress-related diseases. Smoking is known to be associated with lower concentrations of serum bilirubin, but other behavioral correlates of serum bilirubin have not been well studied. In this cross-sectional study, we examined the associations of behavioral and clinical factors with serum total bilirubin in Japanese men and women.
The study subjects comprised of 4802 men and 6414 women aged 49--76 years who participated in the baseline survey of an ongoing cohort study on lifestyle-related diseases in Fukuoka, Japan. With consideration to time of the day of blood sampling and fasting hours, the associations with smoking, alcohol intake, body mass index, physical activity, coffee, tea, blood pressure, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), HDL cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol with serum bilirubin were evaluated by analysis of covariance and multiple linear regression analysis.
While smoking was negatively associated with serum bilirubin, alcohol consumption was positively associated with serum bilirubin in both men and women. Coffee consumption was associated with lower bilirubin concentrations in both sexes. In the multiple linear regression analysis, HDL cholesterol was positively and HbA1c was negatively associated with bilirubin in both men and women, and the associations were more evident in women.
Smoking, alcohol use and coffee consumption were important behavioral correlates of serum bilirubin in Japanese men and women. Serum HDL cholesterol was a measurable clinical correlate of bilirubin in women.
"Coffee is a complex mixture of a thousand chemicals containing potential bioactive molecules such as chlorogenic acid, caffeine, and two diterpenes including cafestol and kahweol . The typical bean of Coffea arabica contains cafestol and kahweol, a structural analogue of cafestol, with individual concentrations ranging from 0.1-7mg/ml in coffee [9,10]. Cafestol and kahweol are fat-soluble compounds known as diterpene molecules (Figure 1A), which are present in oil derived from coffee beans. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a highly aggressive cancer with a very poor prognosis. Several clinical studies such as immunotherapy, gene therapy and molecular targeting agents have been tried for treatment of malignant mesothelioma, however, there is no application for effective clinical treatment. Coffee has various biological functions such as anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-mutagenic and anti-carcinogenic activities. The therapeutic activities of the bioactive compounds in coffee was sugested to influence intracellular signaling of MPM. Regarding to the cancer-related functions, In this study, suppression of Sp1 protein level followed by induction of MSTO-211H cell apoptosis by cafestol and kahweol were investigated in oreder to determine Sp1's potential as a significant target for human MPM therapy as well.
Cells were treated separately with final concentration of cafestol and kahweol and the results were analyzed by MTS assay, DAPI staining, PI staining, luciferase assay, RT-PCR, and immunoblotting.
Viability of MSTO-211H and H28 cells were decreased, and apoptotic cell death was increased in MSTO-211H as a result of cafestol and kahweol treatment. Cafestol and kahweol increased Sub-G1 population and nuclear condensation in MSTO-211H cells. Roles of Sp1 in cell proliferation and apoptosis of the MSTO-211H cells by the Sp1 inhibitor of Mithramycin A were previously confirmed. Cafestol and kahweol significantly suppressed Sp1 protein levels. Kahweol slightly attenuated Sp1 mRNA, while Cafestol did not affect in MSTO-211H cells. Cafestol and kahweol modulated the promoter activity and protein expression level of the Sp1 regulatory genes including Cyclin D1, Mcl-1, and Survivin in mesothelioma cells. Apoptosis signaling cascade was activated by cleavages of Bid, Caspase-3, and PARP with cafestol and by upregulation of Bax, and downregulation of Bcl-xl by kahweol.
Sp1 can be a novel molecular target of cafestol and kahweol in human MPM.
P Piťhová, K Štechová, J Piťha, V Lánská, M Kvapil
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