Coffee consumption and human health - beneficial or detrimental? - Mechanisms for effects of coffee consumption on different risk factors for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus
ABSTRACT Coffee is probably the most frequently ingested beverage worldwide. Especially Scandinavia has a high prevalence of coffee-drinkers, and they traditionally make their coffee by boiling ground coffee beans and water. Because of its consumption in most countries in the world, it is interesting, from both a public and a scientific perspective, to discuss its potential benefits or adverse aspects in relation to especially two main health problems, namely cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Epidemiological studies suggest that consumption of boiled coffee is associated with elevated risk for cardiovascular disease. This is mainly due to the two diterpenes identified in the lipid fraction of coffee grounds, cafestol and kahweol. These compounds promote increased plasma concentration of cholesterol in humans. Coffee is also a rich source of many other ingredients that may contribute to its biological activity, like heterocyclic compounds that exhibit strong antioxidant activity. Based on the literature reviewed, it is apparent that moderate daily filtered, coffee intake is not associated with any adverse effects on cardiovascular outcome. On the contrary, the data shows that coffee has a significant antioxidant activity, and may have an inverse association with the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus.
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ABSTRACT: Coffee melanoidins have attracted interest as a result of its potential health benefits. This investigation aims to elucidate the extraction behavior of melanoidins and their populations during the preparation of portioned espresso coffee and its relationship with the antioxidant activity of the coffee brew. Filter-paper pods, FAP capsule, and clone capsule containing light roasted coffee have been investigated. An accumulative fractionation approach has applied to model the extraction kinetics of melanoidins, melanoidin populations, browning, chlorogenic acids (CGA), and antioxidant activity. Melanoidins were very efficiently extracted in clone capsules since less than 9 s was necessary to extract the 50% of the melanoidin content as compared with pods and FAP capsules, and the kinetic of extraction is slower than CGA. The extraction profile of melanoidins and browning fitted better with the antioxidant capacity than CGA and total solids profile. Melanoidin populations were obtained according to ethanol solubility. Total melanoidin content and the ratio between melanoidin populations did not change during extraction volume for espresso coffee. Melanoidin populations soluble at 75% ethanol showed the highest antioxidant activity. However, melanoidins with higher antioxidant activity are extracted at higher volumes. This investigation could make possible the adjustment of the technological requirements of espresso coffeemakers to produce an espresso coffee with high levels of beneficial compounds.Food Research International 01/2015; 67:356-365. DOI:10.1016/j.foodres.2014.11.053 · 3.05 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This review evaluates coffee constituents in order to determine their influence on the inflammation process. Coffee is a common beverage that contains multiple substances that impact inflammatory markers. The caffeine, chlorogenic acid (CGA), cafestol, trigonelline, and kahweol found in coffee are thought to have significant potential as antioxidants and free radical scavengers. Experimental animal studies indicated reduction of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1B (IL-1B), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) with coffee consumption. Human studies presented mixed results. At this point, coffee shows some promise against the inflammatory response. More research with controlled, double-blinded studies in humans must be conducted before practitioners advise patients to utilize the beverage as a prophylaxis against inflammation.Journal of Functional Foods 10/2012; 4(4):819-830. DOI:10.1016/j.jff.2012.05.010 · 4.48 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A prolonged preclinical phase of more than two decades before the onset of dementia suggested that initial brain changes of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and the symptoms of advanced AD may represent a unique continuum. Given the very limited therapeutic value of drugs currently used in the treatment of AD and dementia, preventing or postponing the onset of AD and delaying or slowing its progression are becoming mandatory. Among possible reversible risk factors of dementia and AD, vascular, metabolic, and lifestyle-related factors were associated with the development of dementia and late-life cognitive disorders, opening new avenues for the prevention of these diseases. Among diet-associated factors, coffee is regularly consumed by millions of people around the world and owing to its caffeine content, it is the best known psychoactive stimulant resulting in heightened alertness and arousal and improvement of cognitive performance. Besides its short-term effect, some case-control and cross-sectional and longitudinal population-based studies evaluated the long-term effects on brain function and provided some evidence that coffee, tea, and caffeine consumption or higher plasma caffeine levels may be protective against cognitive impairment/decline and dementia. In particular, several cross-sectional and longitudinal population-based studies suggested a protective effect of coffee, tea, and caffeine use against late-life cognitive impairment/decline, although the association was not found in all cognitive domains investigated and there was a lack of a distinct dose-response association, with a stronger effect among women than men. The findings on the association of coffee, tea, and caffeine consumption or plasma caffeine levels with incident mild cognitive impairment and its progression to dementia were too limited to draw any conclusion. Furthermore, for dementia and AD prevention, some studies with baseline examination in midlife pointed to a lack of association, although other case-control and longitudinal population-based studies with briefer follow-up periods supported favourable effects of coffee, tea, and caffeine consumption against AD. Larger studies with longer follow-up periods should be encouraged, addressing other potential bias and confounding sources, so hopefully opening new ways for diet-related prevention of dementia and AD.The Journal of Nutrition Health and Aging 12/2014; 19(3). DOI:10.1007/s12603-014-0563-8 · 2.66 Impact Factor