Association between the DRD2 A1 allele and opium addiction in the Iranian population
ABSTRACT Dysfunction of the central dopaminergic neurotransmission has been suggested to play an important role in the etiology of certain neuropsychiatric disorders such as drug abuse. It has been shown that the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) gene dysfunction is associated with multi-drug addiction. Addiction to opium is the most common form of drug abuse in Iran. We studied the allelic association between DRD2 Taq I A polymorphism in 100 opium-dependent Iranian patients and 130 unrelated controls. A 310 bp (base pair) region surrounding Taq I site at the DRD2 locus was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the PCR product was incubated with Taq I restriction enzyme. The A1 allele remained intact while the A2 allele was cut. Significant association was observed between A1 allele and addiction in the patients group (P < 0.0001). Moreover, the frequency of A1A1 genotype was significantly higher in opium users than controls (P < 0.0001). Our result indicates that DRD2 might be involved in the pathophysiology of opium addiction.
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ABSTRACT: Political scientists are making increasing use of the methodologies of behavior genetics in an attempt to uncover whether or not political behavior is heritable, as well as the specific genotypes that might act as predisposing factors for—or predictors of—political “phenotypes.” Noteworthy among the latter are a series of candidate gene association studies in which researchers claim to have discovered one or two common genetic variants that predict such behaviors as voting and political orientation. We critically examine the candidate gene association study methodology by considering, as a representative example, the recent study by Fowler and Dawes according to which “two genes predict voter turnout.” In addition to demonstrating, on the basis of the data set employed by Fowler and Dawes, that two genes do not predict voter turnout, we consider a number of difficulties, both methodological and genetic, that beset the use of gene association studies, both candidate and genome-wide, in the social and behavioral sciences.American Political Science Review 02/2012; 106(01). DOI:10.1017/S0003055411000554 · 3.93 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Growing evidence indicated conflicting results about the dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2)/kinase domain containing 1 gene (ANKK1) TaqIA single nucleotide polymorphism (rs1800497) and common illicit drug dependence risk including stimulants, opioid and marijuana. We conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the association between the polymorphism and common illicit drug dependence risk. A total of 25 available studies (26 subgroups) testing the association between the polymorphism and common illicit drug dependence were examined through Oct 2013. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using fixed- and random-effects models when appropriate. Heterogeneity and publication bias were evaluated. We found the DRD2/ANKK1 TaqIA polymorphism was significantly associated with increased risk of opioid dependence under homozygote, dominant, and recessive genetic model, respectively (homozygote: OR=1.546, 95%CI=1.279-1.87; dominant: OR=1.265, 95%CI=1.055-1.516; recessive: OR=1.409, 95%CI=1.182-1.680). Subgroup analyses were similar to the results of the total population by ethnicity and quality score. Besides, we also found that Caucasian and low-quality studies were major sources of heterogeneity for opioid dependence. We failed to find any significant association between the polymorphism and stimulants or marijuana neither in total population nor subgroup analyses under any genetic model. The current meta-analysis suggested that DRD2/ANKK1 TaqIA polymorphism might be associated with opioid dependence risk, but not associated with stimulants or marijuana dependence. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.Human Immunology 12/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.humimm.2014.12.005 · 2.28 Impact Factor