Dysfunction of the central dopaminergic neurotransmission has been suggested to play an important role in the etiology of certain neuropsychiatric disorders such as drug abuse. It has been shown that the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) gene dysfunction is associated with multi-drug addiction. Addiction to opium is the most common form of drug abuse in Iran. We studied the allelic association between DRD2 Taq I A polymorphism in 100 opium-dependent Iranian patients and 130 unrelated controls. A 310 bp (base pair) region surrounding Taq I site at the DRD2 locus was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the PCR product was incubated with Taq I restriction enzyme. The A1 allele remained intact while the A2 allele was cut. Significant association was observed between A1 allele and addiction in the patients group (P < 0.0001). Moreover, the frequency of A1A1 genotype was significantly higher in opium users than controls (P < 0.0001). Our result indicates that DRD2 might be involved in the pathophysiology of opium addiction.
"This polymorphism is related to the release of dopamine in the synaptic , , and T allele carriers are known to have a 30–40% decreased density of DRD2 , , . Recent years, studies have indicated that TaqIA underlines the individual differences in work memory , sustained attention , , substance addiction , , and a reduced capacity in learning negative characteristics of stimuli . However, the modulation of TaqIA on the attention to facial expressions, especially to the pleasure facial expressions, has not been well investigated. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Studies have revealed that catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and dopaminegic receptor2 (DRD2) modulate human attention bias for palatable food or tobacco. However, the existing evidence about the modulations of COMT and DRD2 on attentional bias for facial expressions was still limited. In the study, 650 college students were genotyped with regard to COMT Val158Met and DRD2 TaqI A polymorphisms, and the attentional bias for facial expressions was assessed using the spatial cueing task. The results indicated that COMT Val158Met underpinned the individual difference in attentional bias for negative emotional expressions (P = 0.03) and the Met carriers showed more engagement bias for negative expressions than the Val/Val homozygote. On the contrary, DRD2 TaqIA underpinned the individual difference in attentional bias for positive expressions (P = 0.003) and individuals with TT genotype showed much more engagement bias for positive expressions than the individuals with CC genotype. Moreover, the two genes exerted significant interactions on the engagements for negative and positive expressions (P = 0.046, P = 0.005). These findings suggest that the individual differences in the attentional bias for emotional expressions are partially underpinned by the genetic polymorphisms in COMT and DRD2.
PLoS ONE 12/2013; 8(12):e81446. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0081446 · 3.23 Impact Factor
"Second, the dopamine D2 receptor gene (DRD2) has been mapped to location 11q23  and has a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the 3′UTR resulting in two possible alleles: the A-1 allele and the A-2 allele. The A-1 allele has been found to be associated with antisocial behaviors including conduct disorder , drug addiction , alcoholism  , novelty seeking , and antisocial personality disorder . Third, the dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4) is another dopamine receptor gene that has been linked to antisocial and maladaptive outcomes. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Research has revealed that despite many similarities, siblings raised within the same household have also been found to be markedly different from one another. Behavioral differences between siblings have been primarily attributed to differential exposure to a wide variety of environmental influences. The potential role that between-sibling genetic differences play in the development of behavioral differences has been overlooked in the extant literature. The current study examines the association between differences in three dopaminergic polymorphisms (DAT1, DRD2, and DRD4) and differences in arrest, incarceration, and multiple arrests between siblings. Between-sibling difference scores were estimated for each examined polymorphism and each criminal justice outcome measure (along with all controls). Ordinary least squares (OLS) regression models were estimated to examine the potential association between genetic differences between siblings and differences in experiences within the criminal justice system. Models were estimated for the full sample and then for the same-sex male and female subsamples separately. The results provide preliminary evidence that between-sibling differences in some of the examined dopaminergic polymorphisms are associated with differences in contact with the criminal justice system. Findings are discussed in more detail and suggestions for future research are also provided.
"A meta-analysis has also reported an association between the DRD2 A1 allele and substance use disorder in Caucasian and non-Caucasian groups (Young et al., 2004). However, the associations with the DRD2 A1 allele in heroin dependence remained controversial (Hou and Li, 2009; Lawford et al., 2000; Li et al., 2002; Shahmoradgoli Najafabadi et al., 2005; Xu et al., 2004). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Understanding the influences of genes involved in dopamine and serotonin metabolism, such as the aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) and alcohol dehydrogenase 1B (ADH1B) genes, is critical for understanding addictive behavior. In addition, dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) gene may also interact with the dopamine metabolizing genes and link to addiction. Therefore, we investigated the association between the ALDH2, ADH1B and DRD2 polymorphisms and heroin dependence. Heroin-dependent Han Chinese patients (n=304) and healthy controls (n=335) were recruited. Genotypes of ALDH2, ADH1B and DRD2 polymorphisms were analyzed using a polymerase chain reaction with restriction fragment length polymorphism. The frequency of the ALDH2*1/*1 genotype was significantly lower in heroin-dependent patients than in controls, but the frequency of ADH1B and DRD2 genotypes was not significantly different. Further stratification of the ALDH2 gene with the ADH1B gene showed that the protective effect of ALDH2*1/*1 existed only in patients who also carried the ADH1B*1/*1 and ADH1B*1/*2 genotype. Logistic regression analysis showed a significant interaction between ALDH2 and ADH1B (P=0.022) and DRD2, ALDH2 and ADH1B in patients (P=0.037). The ALDH2*1/*1, ADH1B*1/*1, and ADH1B*1/*2 genotypes may interact and protect their carriers against heroin dependence and the protective effect may be varied by the DRD2 gene polymorphism. We conclude that the protective effect of the ALDH2 polymorphism against heroin dependence may be modified by the ADH1B and DRD2 polymorphism.
Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 12/2012; 43. DOI:10.1016/j.pnpbp.2012.12.011 · 3.69 Impact Factor
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